ISSN 0010-5082, Combustion, Explosion, and Shock Waves, 2018, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 316–324.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2018.
Original Russian Text
M.K. Atamanov, R. Amrousse, K. Hori, B.Ya. Kolesnikov, Z.A. Mansurov.
Inﬂuence of Activated Carbon on the Thermal Decomposition
of Hydroxylammonium Nitrate
UDC 662.216.5: 546.26
M. K. Atamanov
B. Ya. Kolesnikov
, and Z. A. Mansurov
Published in Fizika Goreniya i Vzryva, Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 72–81, May–June, 2018.
Original article submitted September 19, 2017; revision submitted December 1, 2017.
Abstract: This paper presents experimental results for the thermal decomposition of hydroxy-
lammonium nitrate (HAN) in the presence of activated carbon with a high speciﬁc surface (up
to 3000 m
/g) obtained by activation of rice husk with potassium hydroxide at a temperature of
C in a rotating spherical furnace. The addition of activated carbon reduces the temperature
of the onset of decomposition of HAN from 185 to 86 ± 0.5
C. The burning rate of HAN doped
with activated carbon increases to 400 mm/s at an overpressure of 6 MPa. It has been shown that
the addition of activated carbon reduces the amount of NO
gases produced by decomposition to
Keywords: hydroxylammonium nitrate, activated carbon, burning rate, diﬀerential thermal
analysis, mass spectral analysis.
Hydrazine nitrate is used as a component of liq-
uid rocket propellants in aerospace engineering, mainly
in satellite orientation control systems. The kinetics
of thermal decomposition of hydrazine and its salts
has been studied in detail both theoretically and ex-
perimentally [1, 2]. Unfortunately, rocket propellants
based on hydrazine are considered extremely toxic 
due to the large amount of the NO
by decomposition of gases. Among the possible substi-
tutes for hydrazine, of interest is hydroxylammonium
nitrate (NHA), NH
, which can meet all the
requirements for rocket propellants and their compo-
nents [4, 5]. HAN is an inorganic solid. It is unstable in
the solid state, so that it is usually stored in a mixture
with water at a concentration of the latter of 5–50% .
HAN decomposes with high gas production.
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, 480078
Institute of Combustion Problems, Almaty, 480012
Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency, Sagamihara,
2525210 Kanagawa, Japan.
The main objectives of this study are: (i) experi-
mental investigation of the inﬂuence of activated carbon
on the combustion of HAN and the calculation of the
burning rate of HAN at diﬀerent initial pressures; (ii) ki-
netic analysis of thermal decomposition of HAN in the
presence of activated carbon by diﬀerential thermal and
thermogravimetric (DTA–TG) analysis; (iii) analysis of
gaseous products of thermal decomposition of HAN.
The following materials were used:
(1) 95% aqueous solution of hydroxylammonium nitrate
(Hosoya, Tokyo, Japan) with a molecular weight of
96.04 g/mol, a density of 1.84 g/cm3, and a melting
point of 48
(2) CRH-KOH activated carbon with a high speciﬁc sur-
face area, obtained from carbonized rice husk (CRH) by
high-temperature pyrolysis in argon followed by chem-
ical activation with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at a
temperature of 900
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