ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 4, pp. 638−646. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
Original Russian Text © E.S. Kozlova, T.E. Nikiforova, 2015, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2015, Vol. 88, No. 4, pp. 607−615.
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
The progress of nanotechnologies allowed the
development of materials that exhibit unique properties and
are ideally suitable as packaging materials considerably
prolonging the shelf life of foodstuffs [1, 2]. The interest
in silver nanoparticles and in materials containing them
demonstrates avalanche growth, mainly because of their
unusual physical characteristics, different from those of
the corresponding compact materials [3–6]. Bactericidal
and antiviral activities are important properties of
silver. They are considerably enhanced when using
nanoparticles, because of their sharply increased speciﬁ c
surface area. Therefore, silver nanoparticles can be used
for imparting biocidal properties to packaging materials.
This study is aimed at incorporating silver nanoparticles
into a cellulose matrix for preparing packaging materials
that prolong the shelf life of foodstuffs.
Silver nanoparticles were prepared by reduction of an
aqueous solution of silver nitrate (chemically pure grade).
Glucose (chemically pure grade) was used as reductant.
All the solutions were prepared in distilled water. The
sol was prepared by mixing silver nitrate and glucose
solutions in 1 : 1 volume ratio. The mixture was treated
with an ammonium hydroxide solution (10%, chemically
pure grade) taking into account the fact that the size of
silver nanoparticles depends on pH of the medium. After
that, the sol was heated for 1.5 h at 70°С.
To determine the optimum parameters for preparing
silver nanoparticles, we varied pH and the initial
concentrations of silver nitrate and glucose.
To evaluate the inﬂ uence of the initial silver nitrate
concentration, we chose the concentrations of 0.00005,
0.0001, 0.0005, 0.001, and 0.005 M. The glucose
concentration was kept constant, 0.05 M. The reaction
conditions were as follows: рН 8.5, 70°С, heating time
To evaluate the influence of the initial glucose
concentrations, we chose the concentrations of 0.001,
0.005, 0.01, and 0.05 M. The silver concentration was
kept constant, 0.0005 M. The reaction conditions were
as follows: pH 8.5, 70°С, heating time 1.5 h.
To evaluate the inﬂ uence of pH, we performed the
reaction at pH 8.0, 8.5, 9.5, and 10.5. The other conditions
were as follows: glucose concentration 0.05 M, silver
nitrate concentration 0.0005 M, 70°С, heating time 1.5 h.
The required pH was adjusted using a рН-150MI device.
Incorporation of Silver Nanoparticles into a Cellulose Matrix
for Preparing Package Materials for Foodstuffs
E. S. Kozlova and T. E. Nikiforova
Ivanovo State University of Chemical Technology, Sheremetevskii pr. 7, Ivanovo, 153000 Russia
Received October 5, 2014
Abstract—The paper deals with incorporation of silver/silver oxide nanoparticles into a cellulose matrix with the
aim to obtain package materials for prolonging the shelf life of foodstuffs. The optimum parameters of prepara-
tion of silver nanoparticles (initial concentrations of silver nitrate and glucose, pH) were determined. The optical
absorption spectra of silver sols were obtained. Different methods were used for depositing silver/silver oxide
nanoparticles onto the polymer and ﬁ lm. The nanoparticles were studied by atomic force microscopy. The toxicity
of the polymers and ﬁ lms with the incorporated silver/silver oxide nanoparticles was evaluated by variation of
the optical density of Chlorella alga culture and by the mortality of Daphnia. The polymers and ﬁ lms with silver
nanoparticles deposited using ultrasound are the safest and can be used as packaging material for foodstuffs.