1063-7397/03/3205- $25.00 © 2003 MAIK “Nauka /Interperiodica”
Russian Microelectronics, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2003, pp. 315–321. Translated from Mikroelektronika, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2003, pp. 391–400.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2003 by Gorlov, Andreev.
The operational reliability of solid-state parts,
whether discrete devices or integrated circuits (ICs),
depends on both their quality and the environment in
which they are operated, namely, the quality of the sys-
tem that uses them and the service conditions. The
operational reliability may be quantiﬁed in terms of the
are the proportions failing linked
with parts quality, system quality, and the service con-
is the total number of parts in
the system; and
is the system service life.
Regrettably, batches of solid-state parts that come to
a system manufacturer often contain some noncon-
forming items. The types of failure and the percent non-
conforming of a batch are speciﬁc to the parts manufac-
turer and the period of production as well as the items
themselves. For example, two different manufacturers
may deliver IC batches of the 564 family that differ in
percent nonconforming by an order of magnitude or
more; further, ICs of different families produced by the
same manufacturer may show the same type of failure
. Also note that parts manufacturers may fail to
screen out items with latent faults.
The above explains why almost all system manufac-
turers apply a certain amount of testing to incoming
parts. At the same time, we think that the importance of
incoming control has not been discussed in sufﬁcient
detail. Below we summarize published reports and our
experience in this ﬁeld.
GOALS OF INCOMING CONTROL
Since the system manufacturer bears direct respon-
sibility to the user for a nonconforming system, the
former attaches increasing importance to the quality of
incoming parts as systems grow in sophistication, func-
tionality, and performance.
Table 1 illustrates the relationship between the per-
cent nonconforming for an incoming batch of solid-
state parts and the percent failing for boards containing
100 or 400 items from the batch .
At Litton the proportion nonconforming for parts
varied from 800 to 167000 ppm during the period
1986–1987, the average value being 6000 ppm, or
Incoming Control of Solid-State Parts: A Review
M. I. Gorlov and A. V. Andreev
Voronezh State Technical University, Voronezh, Russia
Received December 6, 2002
—Methods for the incoming control of solid-state parts are reviewed. It is shown that incoming con-
trol is necessary for the quality progress of electronic systems. The authors’ experience in this ﬁeld is summa-
Relationship between the percent nonconforming for an incoming batch of solid-state parts and the percent failing
for boards that use them
Incoming percent nonconforming
Board percent failing
100-part board 400-part board
2.0 86.7 99.97
0.001 0.1 4.0
Source: Willoughby .