Incarnation of classical pro- and eukaryotic mechanisms of mutagenesis in hypermutagenesis and immunity of vertebrates

Incarnation of classical pro- and eukaryotic mechanisms of mutagenesis in hypermutagenesis and... M.E. Lobashev has brilliantly postulated in 1947 that error-prone repair contribute to mutations in cells. This was shown to be true once the mechanisms of UV mutagenesis in Escherichia coli were deciphered. Induced mutations are generated during error-prone SOS DNA repair with the involvement of inaccurate DNA polymerases belonging to the Y family. Currently, several distinct mutator enzymes participating in spontaneous and induced mutagenesis have been identified. Upon induction of these proteins, mutation rates increase by several orders of magnitude. These proteins regulate the mutation rates in evolution and in ontogeny during immune response. In jawed vertebrates, somatic hypermutagenesis occurs in the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes, leading to affinity maturation of antibodies. The process is initiated by cytidine deamination in DNA to uracil by AID (Activation-Induced Deaminase). Further repair of uracil-containing DNA through proteins that include the Y family DNA polymerases causes mutations, induce gene conversion, and class switch recombination. In jawless vertebrates, the variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) serve as the primary molecules for adaptive immunity. Generation of mature VLRs most likely depends on agnathan AID-like deaminases. AID and its orthologs in lamprey (PmCDA1 and PMCDA2) belong to the AID/APOBEC family of RNA/DNA editing cytidine deaminases. This family includes enzymes with different functions: APOBEC1 edits RNA, APOBEC3 restricts retroviruses. The functions of APOBEC2 and APOBEC4 have not been yet determined. Here, we report a new member of the AID/APOBEC family, APOBEC5, in the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae. The widespread presence of RNA/DNA editing deaminases suggests that they are an ancient means of generating genetic diversity. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Russian Journal of Genetics Springer Journals

Incarnation of classical pro- and eukaryotic mechanisms of mutagenesis in hypermutagenesis and immunity of vertebrates

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/incarnation-of-classical-pro-and-eukaryotic-mechanisms-of-mutagenesis-uamqSH0hxf
Publisher
Nauka/Interperiodica
Copyright
Copyright © 2007 by Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Subject
Biomedicine; Human Genetics; Animal Genetics and Genomics; Microbial Genetics and Genomics
ISSN
1022-7954
eISSN
1608-3369
D.O.I.
10.1134/S1022795407100031
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

M.E. Lobashev has brilliantly postulated in 1947 that error-prone repair contribute to mutations in cells. This was shown to be true once the mechanisms of UV mutagenesis in Escherichia coli were deciphered. Induced mutations are generated during error-prone SOS DNA repair with the involvement of inaccurate DNA polymerases belonging to the Y family. Currently, several distinct mutator enzymes participating in spontaneous and induced mutagenesis have been identified. Upon induction of these proteins, mutation rates increase by several orders of magnitude. These proteins regulate the mutation rates in evolution and in ontogeny during immune response. In jawed vertebrates, somatic hypermutagenesis occurs in the variable regions of immunoglobulin genes, leading to affinity maturation of antibodies. The process is initiated by cytidine deamination in DNA to uracil by AID (Activation-Induced Deaminase). Further repair of uracil-containing DNA through proteins that include the Y family DNA polymerases causes mutations, induce gene conversion, and class switch recombination. In jawless vertebrates, the variable lymphocyte receptors (VLR) serve as the primary molecules for adaptive immunity. Generation of mature VLRs most likely depends on agnathan AID-like deaminases. AID and its orthologs in lamprey (PmCDA1 and PMCDA2) belong to the AID/APOBEC family of RNA/DNA editing cytidine deaminases. This family includes enzymes with different functions: APOBEC1 edits RNA, APOBEC3 restricts retroviruses. The functions of APOBEC2 and APOBEC4 have not been yet determined. Here, we report a new member of the AID/APOBEC family, APOBEC5, in the bacterium Xanthomonas oryzae. The widespread presence of RNA/DNA editing deaminases suggests that they are an ancient means of generating genetic diversity.

Journal

Russian Journal of GeneticsSpringer Journals

Published: Oct 15, 2007

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 12 million articles from more than
10,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Unlimited reading

Read as many articles as you need. Full articles with original layout, charts and figures. Read online, from anywhere.

Stay up to date

Keep up with your field with Personalized Recommendations and Follow Journals to get automatic updates.

Organize your research

It’s easy to organize your research with our built-in tools.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

Monthly Plan

  • Read unlimited articles
  • Personalized recommendations
  • No expiration
  • Print 20 pages per month
  • 20% off on PDF purchases
  • Organize your research
  • Get updates on your journals and topic searches

$49/month

Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial

Best Deal — 39% off

Annual Plan

  • All the features of the Professional Plan, but for 39% off!
  • Billed annually
  • No expiration
  • For the normal price of 10 articles elsewhere, you get one full year of unlimited access to articles.

$588

$360/year

billed annually
Start Free Trial

14-day Free Trial