Echo particle image velocimetry (Echo PIV) presents itself as an attractive in vivo flow quantification technique to traditional approaches. Promising results have been acquired; however, limited quantification and validation is available for post-stenotic flows. We focus here on the comprehensive evaluation of in vitro downstream stenotic flow quantified by Echo PIV and validated in relation to digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). A Newtonian blood analog was circulated through a closed flow loop and quantified immediately downstream of a 50 % axisymmetric blockage at two Reynolds numbers (Re) using time-averaged Echo PIV and DPIV. Centerline velocities were in good agreement at all Re; however, Echo PIV measurements presented with elevated standard deviation (SD) at all measurements points. SD was improved using increased line density (LD); however, frame rate or field of view (FOV) is compromised. Radial velocity profiles showed close agreement with DPIV with the largest disparity in the shear layer and near-wall recirculation. Downstream recirculation zones were resolved by Echo PIV at both Re; however, magnitude and spatial coverage was reduced compared to DPIV that coincided with reduced contrast agent penetration beyond the shear layer. Our findings support the use of increased LD at a cost to FOV and highlight reduced microbubble penetration beyond the shear layer. High local SD at near-wall measurements suggests that further refinement is required before proceeding to in vivo quantification studies of wall shear stress in complex flow environments.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Sep 16, 2014
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