The study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of medicinal plant extracts against the bacterial pathogens prominent in dental caries. A total of 20 plant species (herbs, shrubs and trees) belonging to 18 genera and 15 families were documented for dental caries. Antimicrobial activity of solvent extracts and essential oil from plants were determined by zone of inhibition on the growth of Streptococcus mutans (MTCC 497) and Lactobacillus acidophilus (MTCC 10307) using the agar well diffusion method. The results of in vitro antimicrobial assay prove that methanol is more successful in the extraction of phytochemicals from plant samples than aqueous solvent, as methanol extracts show higher antimicrobial activity than aqueous extracts against both the test pathogens. Methanol extracts of Nigella sativa, Psidium guajava and Syzygium aromaticum were the most effective among all 20 plant samples and have potent inhibitory activity against both dental caries pathogens with minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.2 mg mL− 1. N. sativa seed methanol extract was more effective with 22.3 mm zone of inhibition at 0.2 mg mL− 1 against S. mutans (MTCC 497), while L. acidophilus (MTCC 10307) was more sensitive to S. aromaticum bud methanol extract at 11.3 mm zone of inhibition at concentration 0.1 mg mL− 1. Essential oil extracted from plants also possesses strong antimicrobial activity for both test pathogens, with a minimum inhibitory concentration range of 0.05–0.16 mg mL− 1. Syzygium aromaticum bud essential oil at 0.05 mg mL− 1 was most active against S. mutans (MTCC 497). Plant extracts viewing antimicrobial activity with minimum inhibitory concentration show the efficacy of the plant products that could be considered as a good indicator of prospective plants for discovering new antimicrobial agents against dental caries pathogens. The findings of this study provide a lead to further polyherbal formulations for the treatment of dental caries malaise.
3 Biotech – Springer Journals
Published: May 14, 2018
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