Chlorinated solvents in groundwater pose threats to human health and the environment due to their carcinogenesis and bioaccumulation. These problems are often more severe in developing countries such as China. Thus, methods for chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater remediation are urgently needed. This study presents a technique of in situ remediation via the direct-push amendment injection that enhances the reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater in the low-permeability aquifer. A field-based pilot test and a following real-world, full-scale application were conducted at an active manufacturing facility in Shanghai, China. The chlorinated solvents found at the clay till site included 1,1,1-trichloroethane (1,1,1-TCA), 1,1-dichloroethane (1,1-DCA), 1,1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), vinyl chloride (VC), and chloroethane (CA). A commercially available amendment (EHC®, Peroxychem, Philadelphia, PA) combining zero-valent iron and organic carbon was used to treat the above pollutants. Pilot test results showed that direct-push EHC injection efficiently facilitated the in situ reductive remediation of groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents. The mean removal rates of 1,1,1-TCA, 1,1-DCA, and 1,1-DCE at 270 days post-injection were 99.6, 99.3, and 73.3%, respectively, which were obviously higher than those of VC and CA (42.3 and 37.1%, respectively). Clear decreases in oxidation-reduction potential and dissolved oxygen concentration, and increases in Fe2+ and total organic carbon concentration, were also observed during the monitoring period. These indicate that EHC promotes the anaerobic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons primarily via long-term biological reductive dechlorination, with instant chemical reductive dechlorination acting as a secondary pathway. The optimal effective time of EHC injection was 0–90 days, and its radius of influence was 1.5 m. In full-scale application, the maximum concentrations of 1,1,1-TCA and 1,1-DCA in the contaminate plume fell below the relevant Dutch Intervention Values at 180 days post-injection. Moreover, the dynamics of the target pollutant concentrations mirrored those of the pilot test. Thus, we have demonstrated that the direct-push injection of EHC successfully leads to the remediation of chlorinated solvent-contaminated groundwater in a real-world scenario. The parameters determined by this study (e.g., effectiveness, injection amount, injection depth, injection pressures, and radius of influence) are applicable to other low-permeability contaminated sites where in situ remediation by enhanced reductive dechlorination is required.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research – Springer Journals
Published: Aug 18, 2017
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