IMPROVING THE STEEL LADLE LINING
AT THE VOLZHSKII TUBE-MAKING PLANT JOINT-STOCK Co.
L. M. Aksel’rod,
Yu. S. Rodgol’ts,
A. A. Paivin,
V. V. Kazakov,
T. I. Toporkova,
and G. S. Rossikhina
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 5, pp. 80 – 83, May, 2003.
Routes towards improving the quality of refractory lining for steel ladles and choice of the refractory product
configuration are described. Periclase-carbon refractories of the mini-key format based on a composite carbon
binder are shown to be the best choice for the steel ladle lining. Conditions for efficient performance (lining
for the liquid-metal jet impingement zone, replacement of the nested block by a monolithic one, development
of optimum block composition etc.) are discussed.
In an electric furnace shop at the VTMP, 150-ton steel la-
dles have been put in service. The metal refining is carried
out in a ladle furnace (100% heats, with argon blowing
through a bottom tuyere; as needed, steel degassing in the la-
dle can be effected (using a VKR-type unit). The range of
products includes low, medium, and high-carbon steels, also
high-alloy steels (mostly tube steels). The tapping tempera-
ture is 1640 – 1670°C. Routinely, the number of heats per la-
dle per day was rather modest (1.9 – 2.5). In recent time,
there has been a tendency towards increasing the number of
heats per day, under conditions of the ever-increasing vol
ume of production.
During the past four years, efforts were incessantly
aimed at increasing the resistance of the refractory lining and
thus making the production process more cost-effective (in
terms of roubles per ton steel). The optimality criterion was
assumed to be the equal refractoriness of the ladle compo
nents: bottom, walls, and slag zone.
Fruitful cooperation of metallurgists at the VTMP JSC
and refractory engineers at the SRP, with occasional partici
pation of specialists from the St. Petersburg Institute for
Refractories JSC, in the development of steel ladle
refractories has a many-years history. First, the high-alumina
lining refractory was replaced with a periclase-carbon mate
rial, and the standard geometry of ladle components was re
tained using a screw-like pattern for the working (hot) layer
of the lining. Simultaneously, studies were conducted con
cerned with choosing periclase-carbon refractories of ade-
quate quality and improving design and pattern of the lining
and shape of the refractory components.
P-format refractory components with a height tolerance
of ± 0.5 mm were used to make a mortarless ring bricking.
High-quality materials were produced at the SRP JSC using
advanced technology and equipment (weighing batchers,
sheltered conveyors, a computer-controlled mixer (Eirich),
molding pressing equipment (Laeis) for shaping components
in electronically controlled operation regimes, heating fur
naces (275 – 290°C), raw material and final product quality
control). The physicochemical characteristics of refractories
for the lining of steel ladles are given in Table 1.
Therefore a new technology for periclase-carbon refrac
tories using a composite bond (containing thermoplastic and
thermoreactive binders) was proposed. Products containing a
composite carbon binder (see Table 2) exhibit somewhat su
perior properties when compared with those containing con
ventional thermoreactive binders: the former exhibit a lower
porosity and a higher strength and show a better repro
ducibility of properties when tested for certification. The lon
ger service life for refractories based on a complex carbon
binder was anticipated owing to structural improvements of
the refractory, in particular, decreasing the average pore size
and the percentage of intercommunicating pores. This should
result in a lesser infiltration of corrosive components at the
refractory – molten phase interface and in improved strength
properties of the refractory, primarily, its bending strength .
Improving qualitative characteristics of oxide-carbon la
dle refractories was in parallel with improving their configu
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 45, No. 3, 2004
1083-4877/04/4503-0150 © 2004 Plenum Publishing Corporation
St. Petersburg Institute for Refractories, St. Petersburg, Russia;
Volzhskii Tube-Making Plant (VTMP) Joint-Stock Co., Volgo
grad Region, Russia; Semilukskii Refractory Plant (SRP) Joint-
Stock Co., Semiluki, Voronezh Region, Russia.