REFRACTORIES IN HEATING UNITS
IMPROVING THE DESIGNS OF ELEMENTS OF REFRACTORY MATERIALS
FOR THE TUNDISH OF CONTINUOUS SECTION CASTERS
O. A. Marochkin,
K. N. Vdovin,
I. M. Yachikov,
and V. V. Tochiklin
Translated from Novye Ogneupory,No.1,pp.3–5,January, 2016.
Original article submitted October 29, 2015.
This article examines the designs of sets of equipment installed in the discharge chambers of the tundishes on
continuous section casters. Further refinement and practical introduction of the designs will effectively extin
guish the eddies that form above the discharge nozzles and improve the quality of the castings by forming a
well-organized stream of molten metal.
Keywords: continuous caster, tundish, nonmetallic inclusions, discharge orifice, refractory structures.
New designs are being developed to improve the perfor-
mance of elements of the refractory products used in contin-
uous section casters to improve the quality of the cast steel. A
great deal of attention is being given to designs that provide
for good organization of the stream of liquid metal on the
tundish-mold section [1 – 9]. More attention is being paid in
particular to special devices that separate nonmetallic inclu-
sions (NIs) from the steel by organizing the flows of metal in
the necessary directions [1, 2].
The most economical method of continuous section cast
ing is casting in an open stream with the use of metering noz
zles. Use of this method increases the service life of the tun
dish and requires fewer preparatory operations than other
casting methods — such as casting with a closed stream. To
create the conditions necessary for continuous casting over
long periods of time, the following requirements must be sat
isfied by the metering nozzles:
– uniform feed of the molten metal through the intake
openings in the mold during the entire casting operation;
– the formation of a distinct stream without sprays of
A design of metering nozzle with an elongated bushing
has been developed  to obtain such a stream and prevent
spraying (fanning) of the metal. The nozzle is a metal hous
ing 1 lined with a bulk refractory 2 that has a zircon bushing
3 located at its center (Fig. 1). Use of the metering nozzle
with its elongated bushing has improved the formation of the
skin of the continuous-cast semifinished product, made it
easier to replace the nozzle when necessary, made the opera-
tion of the tundish more efficient, reduced the cost of its re-
pair, and increased the productivity of continuous section
casters. Here, the length (height) of the bushing is limited by
the likelihood of having the steel-pouring channel (the inter
nal cavity of the zircon bushing) obstructed by NIs that are
entrained by the flows of liquid steel which enter the chan
The probability of such obstruction of the pouring chan
nel was discovered on decommissioned metering nozzles af
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 57, No. 1, May, 2016
1083-4877/16/05701-0001 © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York
OOO “Vnedrenie Novykh Tekhnologii i Oborudovanie,” Magni
Magnitogorsk State Technical University, Magnitogorsk, Russia.
Fig. 1. Metering nozzle with elongated bushing.