IMPROVEMENT IN THE STEEL-POURING LADLE LINING LIFE
IN OPEN-HEARTH PRODUCTION OF ZAO METALLURGICAL PLANT
V. A. Kononov,
N. V. Kononov,
S. N. Skrobov,
and O. A. Salomakhin
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 4, pp. 66 – 72, April 2009.
Original article submitted September 22, 2008.
Basic principles are considered for the development of refractory linings for steel-pouring ladles operating un
der severe conditions using a furnace-ladle unit. Joint action of personnel of the metallurgical enterprise and
refractory supplier makes it possible to determine the local area of lining wear and to adopt timely measures
for improving life. The effect of the main factors governing wear is determined. The order of selecting the re
quired standard sizes and quality indices for objects taking account of the type of metal smelted is determined.
Keywords: refractory lining, slag belt, local wear.
As a result of technical progress in the field of refractory
production the possibility has developed not only of improv-
ing metal quality, but also reducing expenditure connected
with steel-pouring ladle lining operation, in particular those
operating under conditions of furnace-ladle installations and
Refractory consumption for lining ladles in metallurgical
enterprises with a complete cycle is about one quarter of all
refractory consumption (in absolute value and cost) . The
overall expenditure for traditional ladle refractories in the
cots of Russian metal was previously 1.5 – 2.0%, and there
fore a insufficient attention has been devoted used to saving
refractories. A long life for a lining has a marked effect the
non-metallic inclusion content in metal.
Currently the expenditure on acquiring contemporary
refractories is 4 – 7% of metal cost. An increase in metal cost
may be balanced by a reduction in specific refractory con
sumption due to the use of modern methods for lining opera
tion and new standard sizes for refractory objects.
For effective operation of carbon-containing refractories
it is necessary to have a high-temperature unit for warming
up refractories. A lining warm-up unit may be horizontal or
vertical. Expenditure in installing a high-temperature unit is
repaid in 6 – 8 months. Each uint is equipped with a heat-pro
tective cover in order to avoid heat loss during pouring.
The carbon-containing composition refractories used in
contemporary linings do not exhibit high heat resistance and
during operation they should not be cooled to lower than
800°C. With presence in some cycles of cooling below
800°C there may be some reduction in lining life.
The life of refractory linings used in furnace-ladle de-
vices is determined by a group of factors, each of which
should be considered in lining operation. These are factors
connected with refractory properties, lining construction, and
In the presence of high quality refractories it is not al-
ways possible to achieve maximum lining life. Even insignif
icant changes in metal smelting technology and pouring may
lead to a reduction in refractory life.
EFFECT OF REFRACTORY QUALITY
ON LINING LIFE
In contemporary linings there is mainly use of car
bon-containing refractories based on periclase-carbon or
aluminopericlase-carbon composition. Some Russian enter
prises manufacture these refractories based on imported Chi
nese raw material. In principle the production technology for
domestic refractories provides the required specifications.
There are small deviations with respect to ecology, con
nected with the release of free phenol from the binder.
Studies performed by the enterprises make it possible to hope
for a reduction of harmful discharges into the atmosphere .
Russian metallurgists mainly use imported refractories.
In the first stage supplies were produced by European firms
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 50, No. 2, 2009
1083-4877/09/5002-0089 © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Company Shiber, Moscow, Russia.
ZAO MZ Petrostal’, St. Petersburg, Russia.