Impregnation and Polymerization Reinforcement
of Porous Materials by Liquid Monomer–Solvent Mixtures
T. S. Kiseleva, N. V. Volkova, and D. N. Emel’yanov
Lobachevskii Nizhni Novgorod State University, Nizhni Novgorod, Russia
Received March 9, 2010
Abstract—Effect of the composition of liquid monomer–solvent mixtures on the processes of impregnation
and subsequent reinforcement of solid chalkstone samples by the monomer polymerization in pores was
considered. Factors influencing the rate of the solution-monomer mixture penetration in pores of a solid were
AND POLYMERIC MATERIALS
ISSN 1070-4272, Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 3, pp. 468–472. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2011.
Original Russian Text © T.S. Kiseleva, N.V. Volkova, D.N. Emel’yanov, 2011, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2011, Vol. 84, No. 3, pp. 478–482.
Traditionally conservation of monuments made
from porous materials is carried out by their im-
pregnating with solutions of polymers. In the case of
fine pores, especially of nanosized pores, the penetra-
tion of macromolecules inside of a monument material
is hampered owing to their large sizes. A polymer is
disposed only in surface pores or on a surface of a
monument material. As a result the bulk of monument
material remains not reinforced and is exposed to the
further destruction. A new perspective method of
reinforcement of the monument material porous
structure is its impregnating by low-molecular (co)-
monomers or their solutions in organic solvents with
the subsequent polymerization inside pores. This
method has been offered for the reinforcement of
loessial plaster , wet archeological wood ,
carbonized wood products , and stone . Recently
a method of reinforcement of strongly destructed
archeological materials (fragments of mammoth bones,
wood, paper, and tissue) by p-xylylene polymerization
in a gas phase at room temperature has received
acceptance [5–8]. In all cases a deep penetration of a
monomer into cellular structures of objects to be
restored and a formation of a polymer on all surfaces
accessible to it are observed. However, the theory of
polymerization of monomers in a porous structure of a
monument material is absent. Therefore the problem of
development of general regularities of the synthesis of
polymers inside of pores of solid materials of
monuments is urgent.
The aim of this work was to study the processes of
impregnation and conservation of solid chalkstone
samples by the butyl methacrylate (BMA) poly-
merization in pores.
Reinforcement of chalkstone porous samples was
carries out by their impregnation using the method of
capillary rise of BMA or its mixtures with an organic
solvent and the subsequent methacrylate radical poly-
merization at 45°С within 120 h. The initiator of the
polymerization was dicetylperoxodicarbonate in the
concentration of 1 and 2% of a monomer weight.
Isopropyl alcohol and o-xylene were used as solvents.
The solvent content in a solution-monomer mixture
was varied from 0 up to 0.75 volume parts.
It is known that the process of radical poly-
merization of methacrylates occurs with a heat
evolution, which is poorly removed from a stone. In
order to prevent destruction of solid samples occurring
due to different thermal expansion of stone layers, a
solvent is added to a reactionary monomeric mixture.
The solvent provides a better transmission of heat
evolved upon the polymerization and smoothes a
temperature difference inside of samples and on their
surface. It reduces interior overstresses in the samples.
Furthermore, the presence of a solvent is necessary to
provide conservation of porosity after drying the