or more depending upon the site and depth of opera- In addition to immediate mortality, factors such tion. Changes in the water temperature, salinity and as physiological damage and behavioural change, stratiﬁcation are also of importance (Richardson et al., leading to delayed mortality may also be caused by 1996). In areas where water depths are greater than airgun sound. Matishov (1992) found that exposure of 50 metres, sound typically spreads spherically, that cod (Gadus morhua) at a distance of 2 and 4 metres is at a rate of 20log R (where R is the ratio of the from an airgun led to eye damage, transient stunning, distance to which the sound levels are to be predicted and as a result of internal injuries, death within 48 [in metres] to the distance from source for which hours. Unfortunately, no exposure levels were deter- source levels are given [as a standard this is typically mined in their study, although these may be estimated 1 metre]). Simple spherical spreading rules may only at 214 to 220dB re 1Pa (Turnpenny and Nedwell, be applied with caution to shallow waters <10–50 1994). Sound levels at which physiological damage metres. Sound propagating in lesser depths
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 8, 2004
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