Impact of organizational climate on organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance: empirical evidence from public hospitals

Impact of organizational climate on organizational commitment and perceived organizational... Background: Extant literature suggested that positive organizational climate leads to higher levels of organizational commitment, which is an important concept in terms of employee attitudes, likewise, the concept of perceived organizational performance, which can be assumed as a mirror of the actual performance. For healthcare settings, these are important matters to consider due to the fact that the service is delivered thoroughly by healthcare workers to the patients. Therefore, attitudes and perceptions of the employees can influence how they deliver the service. The aim of this study was to evaluate healthcare employees’ perceptions of organizational climate and test the hypothesized impact of organizational climate on organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance. Methods: The study adopted a quantitative approach, by collecting data from the healthcare workers currently employed in public hospitals in North Cyprus, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire. Collected data was analyzed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences, and ANOVA and Linear Regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis. Results: Results revealed that organizational climate is highly correlated with organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance. Simple linear regression outcomes indicated that organizational climate is significant in predicting organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance. Conclusions: There was a positive and linear relationship between organizational climate with organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance. Results from the regression analysis suggested that organizational climate has an impact on predicting organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance of the employees in public hospitals of North Cyprus. Organizational climate was found to be statistically significant in determining the organizational commitment of the employees. The results of the study provided some critical issues regarding the relationship of three concepts in the study. According to the findings, if the organizational climate scores of the employees are high, organizational commitment scores of the employees are high at the same time. In other words, if the employees in public hospitals of North Cyprus perceive the organizational climate in a positive way, they will have higher levels of organizational commitment. Findings suggested that organizational climate is an important factor in healthcare settings in terms of employee commitment and how employees perceive organizational performance, which would lead to significant results about the provision of service in healthcare organizations. Keywords: Public hospitals, Organizational performance, Climate, Commitment, Management, North Cyprus Correspondence: aysenb@ciu.edu.tr Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Cyprus International University, Haspolat, Nicosia, Cyprus © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 2 of 9 There has been increasing attention on the relationship citizens through publicly owned hospitals and, residents between management and employees both in the have healthcare insurance when they are working or business and in academic world since 1930s. Attitudes retire in Northern Cyprus to receive health care service of the employees towards their organization, as a result free of charge. In the case of North Cyprus, it is import- of their work environment, are important issues in ant to evaluate and understand the behavioral motiva- organizational behavior literature. Employee behavior in tions of the health care employees in public hospitals in organizations is a result of their personal characteristics order to realize how this motivation can have an impact as well as the environment, which they work in. In this on provision of healthcare services. regard, organizational climate is an important aspect in The present study is currently the one and only study order to understand employee’s work-related behavior aimed to address the relationship between organizational and it has been discussed in organizational behavior climate, organizational commitment and perceived literature since late 1960s. organizational performance of health care workers in Simply, organizational climate is the aggregate of psycho- North Cyprus’ health care settings. There are previous logical climates, which are the perceptions of individuals studies conducted in public and private hospitals but about their work environments [1]. However, defining the they were not significantly able to generalize their find- climate in an organization precisely is not easy because it ings in public health sector of North Cyprus. The study is based on the perceptions of employees. Nevertheless, it will contribute to the current literature by presenting is certain that the climate has a strong influence on empirical evidence about the influence of organizational employee attitudes regarding their sense of belonging, climate on organizational commitment and perceived personal relationships and work performance [2]. Add- organizational performance with the use of perceptions itionally, concepts such as job satisfaction, need for of health care workers in public hospitals of North achievement, affiliation and power, overall organizational Cyprus. However, the previous literature involves com- effectiveness and performance, and organizational commit- prehensive research regarding the relationship between ment are found to be the consequences of perceived these three concepts separately, and the current study organizational climate [3]. Moreover, organizational com- contributes to the existing knowledge by analyzing the mitment of employees, towards their organization, is found influence of organizational climate on organizational to have a significant relationship with and influence on the commitment and perceived organizational performance overall organizational performance. Lastly, individual em- collectively, unlike the existing studies in the literature. ployee performance is also found to be correlated with organizational commitment [4]. Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship Organizational climate between organizational climate, organizational commit- Employee behavior in organizations is a result of their ment and perceived organizational performance among personal characteristics as well as the environment in health care professionals currently working in public which they perform. Employees’ job attitudes are hospitals of North Cyprus. The study aims to reveal the affected by a wide range of organizational characteristics nature of relationship between the dependent and and social relationships, which form the employees’ independent variables that are organizational climate work environment [6]. When referring to employees’ (independent variable) on organizational commitment perceptions of their working environments, it is possible (dependent variable 1) and perceived organizational per- to find a variety of terms and definitions such as formance (dependent variable 2). organizational climate, psychological climate, collective North Cyprus health system is comprised of both climate, and organizational culture [7]. Organizational public and private institutions. State hospitals in North climate is one of the most important matters regarding Cyprus are funded by the government. There are organizational environment, which has a direct relationship privately owned hospitals, one university hospital and with employee behavior. Since late 1960s, organizational privately owned clinics in the country. The largest public climate has been a popular topic discussed in organizational hospital is located in the capital, Nicosia, and the other behavior literature and is considered as a vital viewpoint in public hospitals are located in three districts. In addition order to comprehend employee’s work-related attitudes and to these, there is a public hospital specialized on mental behaviors. Payne et al. [8] defined organizational climate as and neurological disorders in Nicosia. The health system the way in which employees perceive their organization and in North Cyprus can be categorized as a blend of its purposes. Churchill et al. conceptualized organizational National Health Service System Model (NHS Model) climate as the aggregates of the social variables, which and Social Insurance System, which were mentioned, by constitute a worker’s job environment [6]. According to Kikuzawa, Olafsdottir, and Pescosolido [5]. In this Mullins [2], if organizational culture is defined simply as respect, the government provides health care to the ‘how things are done around here,’ then organizational Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 3 of 9 climate can be defined as ‘how it feels to work around here’. commitment. One of the important studies of the litera- Griffin and Moorhead explained organizational climate as ture was carried out in 1974 by Lyman Porter et al., individual perceptions; recurring patterns of behaviour, atti- which was concerned with organizational commitment tudes and feelings of employees [9]. and turnover intentions of the employees. Porter et al., Additionally, Robbins and Judge stated that organizational in 1974, carried out the most commonly cited study of climate can be considered as an aspect of culture and de- the related literature, which addressed the relationship fined as team spirit but at the organizational level [10], and between organizational commitment, job satisfaction according to Uhl-Bien et al. [11], one of the most important and turnover intentions among a sample of psychiatric aspects in an organization to influence how people behave technicians. This study preserves its significance as it is organizational culture that can be defined as the shared involves the first organizational commitment question- beliefs and values within the organization [11]. In order to naire in the literature [14]. Later in 1983, Morrow advo- understand how an employee perceives organizational cli- cated that personal values, career, job (characteristics) mate, it is necessary to consider the employee’s perceptions and union play an important role in defining the of the work situation (including the characteristics of the commitment of workers [15]. Continuously, in 1985, organization they work for) and the nature of his/her rela- Reichers introduced the idea that organizational com- tionships with other people in the same environment [6]. mitment can be explained as “a collection of multiple Organizational climate has a significant impact on the well- commitments to various groups that comprise the being of employees that has a direct influence on quality organization” [16]. Later in 1991, Meyer and Allen and quantity of work done in the organization [2]. There adopted a different point of view and conceptualized the are various studies regarding the relationship between three component model of organizational commitment organizational climate and its consequences. The concepts [17]. Allen and Meyer [17] explained the three compo- like job satisfaction, need for achievement, affiliation and nents of organizational commitment as “Affective” (AC), power, overall organizational effectiveness and individual “Continuance” (CC) and “Normative” (NC) commitment. performance are found to be the dependent variables and In their conceptualizations, employees with higher levels of consequences of organizational climate [3]. In addition, one affective commitment remain in their organizations because of these consequences is organizational commitment, and a they “want to”, those with strong continuance commitment moderate level of attention is given in the literature to levels stay in their organizations because they “need to” and reveal this relationship. Consequently, the relationship those associated with normative commitment remain between organizational climate and organizational perform- because they feel they “ought to” do so. According to the ance is also a widely discussed topic, but perceived definition of Meyer and Allen, concept of organizational organizational performance is a relatively new concept and commitment is “a psychological state that characterizes the has not drawn the attention on itself yet. Permarupan et al. employee’s relationship with the organization and has [12] suggested that organizational climate perceived by em- implications for the decision to continue or discontinue ployees influences the motivation of employees and motiv- membership in the organization” [17]. ation will result in higher productivity so, a positive climate In the recent review of literature for antecedents and is said to encourage employees’ productivity and decrease consequences of organizational commitment, the most turnover. encountered antecedents are found to be personal charac- According to Mullins [2], there is a significant relation- teristics, organizational structure, tenure, rewards, training, ship between organizational climate and commitment of and work values whilst the consequences are mainly in- employees as well as perceived organizational perform- creased employee performance, motivation and lower turn- ance. However, a healthy organizational climate does not over intentions [18, 19]. The antecedent of organizational guarantee an improved organizational performance, even commitment in health sector is job motivation. Intrinsic along with organizational commitment, there are other motivation is found to lead to affective and normative variables contributing to improved performance [2]. commitment and extrinsic to normative commitment [20]. In addition, demographic characteristics like the marital Organizational commitment status of workers and level of affective commitment and There have been various classifications of employee normative commitment are found to be positive and thus, attitude and attachment towards their organizations it is found that there is a statistically significant difference such as loyalty, devotion and commitment in the extant in normative commitment levels in regard to the educa- literature. The concept of commitment was firstly intro- tional status of the respondents [21]. duced to literature in 1960 by Becker and it was explained as “one mechanism producing consistent Perceived organizational performance human behavior” [13]. Later, during 1970s, a variety of In today’s competitive business environment, it is studies were carried out on the concept of organizational important for companies to perform better than the rival Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 4 of 9 firms in any industry. The main task of an organization’s As a result of the literature review, the study has structure should serve an environment, which encour- adopted four hypotheses to be tested: ages people to work hard, and can coordinate their efforts to ensure higher levels of organizational perform- H : There is a positive relationship between ance [22]. Better performance depends on the overall organizational climate and organizational commitment. performance of the organizations that is directly linked with human resources, in other words, employees. H : There is a positive relationship between Although technology is important as it has a great organizational climate and perceived organizational impact on organizational performance in a number of performance. ways, people are the necessary human resources whose knowledge and performance are important for advancing H : Organizational climate is statistically significant in the purpose, mission, and strategies of an organization predicting organizational commitment. [23]. In short, organizational performance can be defined as the collective performance of individual employees H : Organizational climate is statistically significant in whereas individual employee performance is defined as predicting perceived organizational performance. “an evaluation of the results of a person’s behavior: de- termining how well or poorly a person has accomplished Methods a task given” and it is found that motivation, personality Measurement and ability are the important factors affecting employees’ Data was collected with the help of self-administered performance [22]. Additionally, stress levels in an surveys introduced to health care workers currently organization are found to be positively affecting employed in four of the five largest public hospitals of organizational performance on the appropriate levels but North Cyprus. The collected data was evaluated and hy- when stress starts to increase, it leads to a decrease in pothesized model was tested with the help of Statistical individual and organizational performance [24]. Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. In order Mostly, organizational performance is measured by to test the hypothesized model of the study, correlation evaluating the numerical data, which include the object- analysis and simple linear regression analyses were ive and timely information about how well the utilized. organization is doing. However, performance measure- The study aimed at testing the proposed model by ment is not always necessarily based on objective data. considering the organizational climate as the only inde- For example, customer satisfaction is measured accord- pendent variable while organizational commitment and ing to individual stories and managers decide on how perceived organizational performance were considered well an organization is doing according to those as the dependent variables. collected subjective data [25]. Perceived organizational The data was collected with the help of self- performance varies according to whose viewpoint is administered questionnaires and evaluated by using cor- taken within the organization such as customers or relations and simple linear regression in order to reveal stockholders. The time period observed and criteria used the nature and power of the hypothesized relationship also affect the perceived performance [26]. The concept between variables. Before utilizing the recently men- of perceived organizational performance specifically tioned tests, factor analysis and, consequently, reliability refers to the subjective measurement of employee analysis were carried out for each part of the instrument perceptions regarding an organization’s overall perform- in order to test the validity and reliability of the instru- ance when compared to the rivals in the same sector ment for the current research setting. and may be closely related to strategy and reward The questionnaires involved 5-point Likert scale mea- systems that directly affect the attitudes of employees sures and were adopted from the studies mentioned within an organization [27]. In this sense, human below: resources practices in an organization surely contribute to overall organizational performance and efficiency  Organizational Climate Scale (CLIOR) [29] since organizational performance can be defined as the  Organizational Commitment Questionnaire [30] individual perception of organizational efficiency by  Perceived Organizational Performance [31] employees [28]. Continuously, in order to enhance organizational performance it is important for manage- Organizational Climate Scale (CLIOR) was adopted ment to understand and find different sources of from the study of Peña-Suárez et al. [29]. The short ver- leadership that will lead to improved organizational per- sion of the questionnaire was adopted for the present formance [11]. Teamwork is also found to be one of the study, which included 15 items aimed to measure the antecedents for organizational performance [23]. organizational climate. The first 15 questions of the Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 5 of 9 survey consisted of questions regarding organizational Results climate. However, 1 item was removed after the pilot Descriptive findings study, which caused a problem with the reliability of the The majority of the study sample was female respon- instrument (Cronbach’s Alpha for 15 items: 0.567 and dents (74.6%) and were between 31 and 40 years of age Cronbach’s Alpha when one item was deleted: 0.884). (40.6%). Due to the fact that it was easier to reach nurses Therefore, 14 items of the CLIOR Scale were included in the hospital setting, the majority of the sample was into the main study. Questions from Meyer and Allen’s found to be nurses (48.4%). Percentage of nurses was [17] Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) followed by a considerable amount of other health care were adopted in order to measure the level of employees like pharmacists, dieticians, radiology techni- organizational commitment of the health care employees. cians, medical secretaries, physiotherapists, chemists, There were 17 items aimed at measuring the organizational laboratory assistants and biologists (38%). Again, due to commitment score of the respondents. The overall another important fact that it was very difficult to reach organizational commitment score was taken as the average doctors in the hospital setting, the minority of the score of all three dimensions as suggested by Meyer and respondents was doctors (12.7%). Allen [30]. On the other hand, questions from Delaney and Lastly, when the frequency about tenure is reviewed, it Huselid’s[31] study regarding the perceived organizational is possible to conclude that there is an almost equal distri- performancewereusedtomeasure theoverall scoreof bution of the tenure between 1 to 10 years of work. The perceived organizational performance. majority mentioned that they have been working in the All three measurement instruments were originally same institution for more than 10 years (31.5%). produced in English language so, for the current re- Remaining population stated that they have been in the search, the items were translated into Turkish by using same organization for 5 to 10 years (25.4%) and 1 to back- translation method in order to get the best re- 5 years (21.1%). Only a minority of the population sponse from the participants. mentioned that they have been in the same organization for only less than 1 year (3.3%). Interestingly, 40 of the respondents (18.8%) rejected to state their tenure (Table 1). Sampling Currently, there are five large public hospitals in North Correlation analysis Cyprus. Current study utilized the information, which Subsequently, correlations were checked in order to was gathered from four large hospitals, and one hospital confirm the hypothesized relationship between inde- was not taken into the sample of the study. It was pendent variables and dependent variables. When corre- excluded from the scope of the study because of the lations are reviewed, it is possible to conclude that communication issues and unwillingness of the staff in organizational climate is positively correlated with both that public hospital. The universe of the study consisted organizational commitment and perceived organizational of 975 health care employees who are currently performance (Table 2). employed full time in those four hospitals. According to correlation coefficients of organizational Simple random sampling method was used in order to climate and organizational commitment, these two con- select the participants for the study. When calculating cepts have a positive relationship, which is found to have the minimum sample for respondents, which was a moderate strength level of 0.452 [32]. Therefore, it is required to represent the universe, 90% confidence level possible to accept that there is a positive relationship be- and 5 confidence interval was considered for total tween organizational climate and organizational com- population of N = 975 healthcare workers in four public mitment and thus, this finding supports Hypothesis 1. hospitals. When the sample for the study was calculated, When correlation coefficient of organizational climate the required sample size for the current study was found and perceived organizational performance is reviewed, the to be 212 respondents. relationship is found to be positive with a significantly Approximately 1000 questionnaires were distributed high strength level of 0.671. Therefore, it is possible to by hand, and around 220 were collected back. However, accept that there is a positive relationship between some of them were found to be inadequately answered, organizational climate and perceived organizational per- so they were left out of consideration. Finally, 213 formance, and Hypothesis 2 is supported with this finding. returned questionnaires were used and the response rate As an overall result, it is concluded that organizational was 21.8%. climate has a positive linear relationship with organizational The reliability of the measurement instruments was commitment and perceived organizational performance on studied before moving on to the actual analysis of moderate to high level of strength in terms of correlation hypothesis testing. The minimum level of Cronbach’s coefficients. After concluding that the relationship between Alpha was above 0.7 for all instruments. variables is a linear relationship, a test of normality was also Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 6 of 9 Table 1 Demographic data of respondents (N = 213) According to the results from correlation analysis, organizational commitment and age have a weak, posi- Variable Frequency Percentage (%) tive correlation at 0,05 significance level (0,174). This Gender can be concluded as older employees tend to have Female 159 74,6 higher levels of organizational commitment. Tenure and Male 52 24,4 organizational commitment have a weak and positive re- Missing 2 ,9 lationship (0,213) meaning that as employees remain in Age the same organization for a longer period of time, their Between 20 and 30 62 29,1 organizational commitment tends to increase. There is a positive but weak correlation between organizational Between 31 and 40 86 40,4 commitment and duty (0,186), which can be interpreted Between 41 and 50 56 26,3 as employees working in other positions (as pharmacists, More than 50 7 3,3 pharmacist helpers, dieticians, radiology technicians etc.) Missing 2 ,9 besides doctors, nurses and managers, tend to have Profession higher levels of organizational commitment. Doctor / Practitioner 27 12,7 Continuously, organizational climate was found to have a negative and weak correlation with salary (− 0,163). This Nurse 103 48,4 result can represent that employees tend to observe the Other 81 38,0 climate in their organizations less when they receive Missing 2 ,9 higher salaries. Tenure Lastly, perceived organizational performance was also Less than one year 7 3,3 found to have a negative and weak correlation with 1–5 Years 45 21,1 salary (− 0,205). This result can be interpreted as em- ployees tend to be concerned less about organizational 5–10 Years 54 25,4 performance when they receive higher salaries. More than 10 Years 67 31,5 Missing 40 18,8 Regression analysis Due to the fact that the study adopted only one independent variable and aimed to find out the direct run in order to see the normal distribution before the simple influence of organizational climate on the dependent linear regression. As a result, both organizational commitment variables without a confounding effect or variable, and perceived organizational performance values were found simple linear regression analysis was carried out. Initial to have normal distribution (sig. 0.200 > 0.05). regression analysis was conduced to test the relationship Additionally, control variables were included in the cor- between organizational climate and organizational com- relations matrix in order to comprehend the relationships mitment in the first place. between demographic variables and organizational climate, Organizational climate was found to be statistically organizational commitment and perceived organizational significant in predicting organizational commitment performance. (0.000 < 0.05) so, Hypothesis 3 was supported (Table 3). Table 2 Intercorrelations among control variables, organizational climate, organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1. Organizational Climate 1000 2. Organizational Commitment 0,452 1000 a a 3. Perceived Organizational Performance 0,671 0,436 1000 4. Gender 0,003 0,050 0,077 1000 5. Age 0,053 0,174 − 0,048 0,083 1000 6. Marital Status −0,041 − 0,020 − 0,022 0,113 − 0,094 1000 7. Duty −0,027 0,186 − 0,097 −0,132 0,017 0,005 1000 b a a b 8. Salary −0,163 − 0,022 −0,205 0,065 0,438 − 0,014 −0,201 1000 a a a a 9. Tenure 0,018 0,213 − 0,082 −0,026 0,579 − 0,149 0,218 0,458 1000 Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 7 of 9 Table 3 Simple linear regression organizational climate and organizational commitment B Std. Error Beta t Sig. Constant 1.695 .214 7.907 .000 Organizational Climate .410 .062 .452 6.589 .000 Dependent Variable: Organizational Commitment R : 0.204 Sig: < 0.05 Furthermore, as a result of the regression analysis, it is Fig. 1 Tested model of the study possible to predict the organizational commitment by organizational climate by the equation as follows: variables, organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance, which is present as 20.4% Organizational commitment and 45% respectively. ¼ 1:695 þ 0:410ðÞ Organizational climate Discussion The predictive power of regression equation was found The results of the study provided critical information to be 0.204 meaning that 20.4% of organizational com- regarding the influence of organizational climate on mitment’s variance can be predicted by organizational organizational commitment and perceived organizational climate. performance in four largest public hospitals included in Continuously, second linear regression analysis was the study. Results from the regression analysis suggested conducted in order to evaluate the relationship between that organizational climate has an impact on predicting organizational climate and perceived organizational per- organizational commitment and perceived organizational formance. Organizational climate was found to be statis- performance of the employees in public hospitals of tically significant in predicting perceived organizational North Cyprus. Organizational climate is found to be sta- performance (0.000 < 0.05) and Hypothesis 4 was sup- tistically significant in determining the organizational ported (Table 4). commitment of the employees. Continuously, there was As a result of the regression analysis, it is possible to a positive and linear relationship between these two vari- predict the perceived organizational performance by ables. This can be interpreted as if the organizational cli- organizational climate by the equation as follows: mate scores of the employees are high, organizational commitment scores of the employees are high at the same time. In other words, if the employees in public Perceived organizational performance hospitals of North Cyprus perceive the organizational ¼ 0:471 þ 0:769ðÞ Organizational climate climate in a positive way, they will have higher levels of The prediction power of regression equation was organizational commitment. However, the predictive found to be 0.450 meaning that 45% of perceived power of organizational climate on organizational com- organizational performance’s variance can be predicted mitment is not significantly high by 20%, which means by organizational climate. that the organizational climate is only effective in pre- As a result of the regression analysis, it is possible to dicting organizational commitment by 20%. adjust the proposed model as follows: (Fig. 1). On the other hand, the prediction power of the The findings from the regression concluded that there organizational climate on perceived organizational per- is a strong influence of organizational climate on formance is found to be significantly high by - 45%, perceived organizational performance and a moderate which means that if employees perceive a positive influence on organizational commitment. By using the organizational climate in their organizations, they tend equations which were constructed by results of regres- to perceive the organizational performance higher in sion analysis, it is possible to predict how much influ- comparison to competitors. ence does organizational climate have on the dependent Consequently, in order to reach positive levels of organizational climate in hospital settings, it is important Table 4 Simple Linear Regression Organizational Climate and for decision makers to understand and improve the Perceived Organizational Performance components of organizational climate. B Std. Error Beta t Sig. Constant .471 .223 2.112 .036 Conclusion Firstly, it is important to create an environment of trust Organizational Climate .769 .065 .671 11.805 .000 2 involving good relationships with supervisors to contrib- Dependent Variable: Perceived Organizational Performance R : 0.450 Sig: < 0.05 ute to the organizational commitment of the employees Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 8 of 9 and improve their perception of organizational perform- Continuously, there was no analysis regarding a con- ance. Employees should be openly communicating with founding variable. Therefore, a mediating or moderating their supervisors and receiving feedback and support relationship was not sought for organizational commit- when needed. In addition, adopting work teams can ment in respect to the influence of organizational cli- improve the work environment by constituting a warm mate on perceived organizational performance. and cooperating atmosphere while reducing the conflict. Abbreviations Continuously, autonomy is another important aspect CLIOR: Organizational Climate Scale; OCQ: Organizational Commitment where employees take full responsibility of their jobs and Questionnaire; SPSS: Statistical Package for Social Sciences can take initiatives. At this point, practicing in participa- Acknowledgements tive management will be useful for the decision makers This article was derived from Ph.D. Thesis of Dr. Aysen Berberoglu, which so that they share the authority with the employees was written under the supervision and with considerable contribution of Prof. Dr. Hikmet Seçim from Cyprus International University. allowing them to take more responsibilities, which will contribute, to their commitment and perceptions. Availability of data and materials Secondly, the perception of employees on equality and Available upon request. Raw data can be gathered from Dr. Berberoglu. fairness in distribution of rewards is also crucial. Author’s contributions Managers should offer rewards to their employees and AB is the only author of the article and the study was solely carried out by at the same time watch over the distribution of rewards the author. The author read and approved the final manuscript. to create a positive climate because a perception of Ethics approval and consent to participate unfairness can cause a reverse impact. Data was collected by questionnaires from volunteer respondents who was Thirdly, organizational structure, including regulations, employed at public hospitals. Permission was gathered from Ministry of standards and organization of work, is also another com- Health in order to access the hospitals and reach the respondents. ponent of organizational climate, which has an impact on Competing interests organizational commitment and perceived organizational The author declares that she has no competing interests. performance. 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Sage Publications; 1997. isbn:0761901043. 31. Delaney J, Huselid M. The impact of human resource management practices on perceptions of organizational performance. Acad Manag J. 1996;39(4):949–69. 32. Cohen J. Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd edition): Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png BMC Health Services Research Springer Journals

Impact of organizational climate on organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance: empirical evidence from public hospitals

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Medicine & Public Health; Public Health; Health Administration; Health Informatics; Nursing Research
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Abstract

Background: Extant literature suggested that positive organizational climate leads to higher levels of organizational commitment, which is an important concept in terms of employee attitudes, likewise, the concept of perceived organizational performance, which can be assumed as a mirror of the actual performance. For healthcare settings, these are important matters to consider due to the fact that the service is delivered thoroughly by healthcare workers to the patients. Therefore, attitudes and perceptions of the employees can influence how they deliver the service. The aim of this study was to evaluate healthcare employees’ perceptions of organizational climate and test the hypothesized impact of organizational climate on organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance. Methods: The study adopted a quantitative approach, by collecting data from the healthcare workers currently employed in public hospitals in North Cyprus, utilizing a self-administered questionnaire. Collected data was analyzed with the help of Statistical Package for Social Sciences, and ANOVA and Linear Regression analyses were used to test the hypothesis. Results: Results revealed that organizational climate is highly correlated with organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance. Simple linear regression outcomes indicated that organizational climate is significant in predicting organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance. Conclusions: There was a positive and linear relationship between organizational climate with organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance. Results from the regression analysis suggested that organizational climate has an impact on predicting organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance of the employees in public hospitals of North Cyprus. Organizational climate was found to be statistically significant in determining the organizational commitment of the employees. The results of the study provided some critical issues regarding the relationship of three concepts in the study. According to the findings, if the organizational climate scores of the employees are high, organizational commitment scores of the employees are high at the same time. In other words, if the employees in public hospitals of North Cyprus perceive the organizational climate in a positive way, they will have higher levels of organizational commitment. Findings suggested that organizational climate is an important factor in healthcare settings in terms of employee commitment and how employees perceive organizational performance, which would lead to significant results about the provision of service in healthcare organizations. Keywords: Public hospitals, Organizational performance, Climate, Commitment, Management, North Cyprus Correspondence: aysenb@ciu.edu.tr Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Cyprus International University, Haspolat, Nicosia, Cyprus © The Author(s). 2018 Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated. Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 2 of 9 There has been increasing attention on the relationship citizens through publicly owned hospitals and, residents between management and employees both in the have healthcare insurance when they are working or business and in academic world since 1930s. Attitudes retire in Northern Cyprus to receive health care service of the employees towards their organization, as a result free of charge. In the case of North Cyprus, it is import- of their work environment, are important issues in ant to evaluate and understand the behavioral motiva- organizational behavior literature. Employee behavior in tions of the health care employees in public hospitals in organizations is a result of their personal characteristics order to realize how this motivation can have an impact as well as the environment, which they work in. In this on provision of healthcare services. regard, organizational climate is an important aspect in The present study is currently the one and only study order to understand employee’s work-related behavior aimed to address the relationship between organizational and it has been discussed in organizational behavior climate, organizational commitment and perceived literature since late 1960s. organizational performance of health care workers in Simply, organizational climate is the aggregate of psycho- North Cyprus’ health care settings. There are previous logical climates, which are the perceptions of individuals studies conducted in public and private hospitals but about their work environments [1]. However, defining the they were not significantly able to generalize their find- climate in an organization precisely is not easy because it ings in public health sector of North Cyprus. The study is based on the perceptions of employees. Nevertheless, it will contribute to the current literature by presenting is certain that the climate has a strong influence on empirical evidence about the influence of organizational employee attitudes regarding their sense of belonging, climate on organizational commitment and perceived personal relationships and work performance [2]. Add- organizational performance with the use of perceptions itionally, concepts such as job satisfaction, need for of health care workers in public hospitals of North achievement, affiliation and power, overall organizational Cyprus. However, the previous literature involves com- effectiveness and performance, and organizational commit- prehensive research regarding the relationship between ment are found to be the consequences of perceived these three concepts separately, and the current study organizational climate [3]. Moreover, organizational com- contributes to the existing knowledge by analyzing the mitment of employees, towards their organization, is found influence of organizational climate on organizational to have a significant relationship with and influence on the commitment and perceived organizational performance overall organizational performance. Lastly, individual em- collectively, unlike the existing studies in the literature. ployee performance is also found to be correlated with organizational commitment [4]. Background The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship Organizational climate between organizational climate, organizational commit- Employee behavior in organizations is a result of their ment and perceived organizational performance among personal characteristics as well as the environment in health care professionals currently working in public which they perform. Employees’ job attitudes are hospitals of North Cyprus. The study aims to reveal the affected by a wide range of organizational characteristics nature of relationship between the dependent and and social relationships, which form the employees’ independent variables that are organizational climate work environment [6]. When referring to employees’ (independent variable) on organizational commitment perceptions of their working environments, it is possible (dependent variable 1) and perceived organizational per- to find a variety of terms and definitions such as formance (dependent variable 2). organizational climate, psychological climate, collective North Cyprus health system is comprised of both climate, and organizational culture [7]. Organizational public and private institutions. State hospitals in North climate is one of the most important matters regarding Cyprus are funded by the government. There are organizational environment, which has a direct relationship privately owned hospitals, one university hospital and with employee behavior. Since late 1960s, organizational privately owned clinics in the country. The largest public climate has been a popular topic discussed in organizational hospital is located in the capital, Nicosia, and the other behavior literature and is considered as a vital viewpoint in public hospitals are located in three districts. In addition order to comprehend employee’s work-related attitudes and to these, there is a public hospital specialized on mental behaviors. Payne et al. [8] defined organizational climate as and neurological disorders in Nicosia. The health system the way in which employees perceive their organization and in North Cyprus can be categorized as a blend of its purposes. Churchill et al. conceptualized organizational National Health Service System Model (NHS Model) climate as the aggregates of the social variables, which and Social Insurance System, which were mentioned, by constitute a worker’s job environment [6]. According to Kikuzawa, Olafsdottir, and Pescosolido [5]. In this Mullins [2], if organizational culture is defined simply as respect, the government provides health care to the ‘how things are done around here,’ then organizational Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 3 of 9 climate can be defined as ‘how it feels to work around here’. commitment. One of the important studies of the litera- Griffin and Moorhead explained organizational climate as ture was carried out in 1974 by Lyman Porter et al., individual perceptions; recurring patterns of behaviour, atti- which was concerned with organizational commitment tudes and feelings of employees [9]. and turnover intentions of the employees. Porter et al., Additionally, Robbins and Judge stated that organizational in 1974, carried out the most commonly cited study of climate can be considered as an aspect of culture and de- the related literature, which addressed the relationship fined as team spirit but at the organizational level [10], and between organizational commitment, job satisfaction according to Uhl-Bien et al. [11], one of the most important and turnover intentions among a sample of psychiatric aspects in an organization to influence how people behave technicians. This study preserves its significance as it is organizational culture that can be defined as the shared involves the first organizational commitment question- beliefs and values within the organization [11]. In order to naire in the literature [14]. Later in 1983, Morrow advo- understand how an employee perceives organizational cli- cated that personal values, career, job (characteristics) mate, it is necessary to consider the employee’s perceptions and union play an important role in defining the of the work situation (including the characteristics of the commitment of workers [15]. Continuously, in 1985, organization they work for) and the nature of his/her rela- Reichers introduced the idea that organizational com- tionships with other people in the same environment [6]. mitment can be explained as “a collection of multiple Organizational climate has a significant impact on the well- commitments to various groups that comprise the being of employees that has a direct influence on quality organization” [16]. Later in 1991, Meyer and Allen and quantity of work done in the organization [2]. There adopted a different point of view and conceptualized the are various studies regarding the relationship between three component model of organizational commitment organizational climate and its consequences. The concepts [17]. Allen and Meyer [17] explained the three compo- like job satisfaction, need for achievement, affiliation and nents of organizational commitment as “Affective” (AC), power, overall organizational effectiveness and individual “Continuance” (CC) and “Normative” (NC) commitment. performance are found to be the dependent variables and In their conceptualizations, employees with higher levels of consequences of organizational climate [3]. In addition, one affective commitment remain in their organizations because of these consequences is organizational commitment, and a they “want to”, those with strong continuance commitment moderate level of attention is given in the literature to levels stay in their organizations because they “need to” and reveal this relationship. Consequently, the relationship those associated with normative commitment remain between organizational climate and organizational perform- because they feel they “ought to” do so. According to the ance is also a widely discussed topic, but perceived definition of Meyer and Allen, concept of organizational organizational performance is a relatively new concept and commitment is “a psychological state that characterizes the has not drawn the attention on itself yet. Permarupan et al. employee’s relationship with the organization and has [12] suggested that organizational climate perceived by em- implications for the decision to continue or discontinue ployees influences the motivation of employees and motiv- membership in the organization” [17]. ation will result in higher productivity so, a positive climate In the recent review of literature for antecedents and is said to encourage employees’ productivity and decrease consequences of organizational commitment, the most turnover. encountered antecedents are found to be personal charac- According to Mullins [2], there is a significant relation- teristics, organizational structure, tenure, rewards, training, ship between organizational climate and commitment of and work values whilst the consequences are mainly in- employees as well as perceived organizational perform- creased employee performance, motivation and lower turn- ance. However, a healthy organizational climate does not over intentions [18, 19]. The antecedent of organizational guarantee an improved organizational performance, even commitment in health sector is job motivation. Intrinsic along with organizational commitment, there are other motivation is found to lead to affective and normative variables contributing to improved performance [2]. commitment and extrinsic to normative commitment [20]. In addition, demographic characteristics like the marital Organizational commitment status of workers and level of affective commitment and There have been various classifications of employee normative commitment are found to be positive and thus, attitude and attachment towards their organizations it is found that there is a statistically significant difference such as loyalty, devotion and commitment in the extant in normative commitment levels in regard to the educa- literature. The concept of commitment was firstly intro- tional status of the respondents [21]. duced to literature in 1960 by Becker and it was explained as “one mechanism producing consistent Perceived organizational performance human behavior” [13]. Later, during 1970s, a variety of In today’s competitive business environment, it is studies were carried out on the concept of organizational important for companies to perform better than the rival Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 4 of 9 firms in any industry. The main task of an organization’s As a result of the literature review, the study has structure should serve an environment, which encour- adopted four hypotheses to be tested: ages people to work hard, and can coordinate their efforts to ensure higher levels of organizational perform- H : There is a positive relationship between ance [22]. Better performance depends on the overall organizational climate and organizational commitment. performance of the organizations that is directly linked with human resources, in other words, employees. H : There is a positive relationship between Although technology is important as it has a great organizational climate and perceived organizational impact on organizational performance in a number of performance. ways, people are the necessary human resources whose knowledge and performance are important for advancing H : Organizational climate is statistically significant in the purpose, mission, and strategies of an organization predicting organizational commitment. [23]. In short, organizational performance can be defined as the collective performance of individual employees H : Organizational climate is statistically significant in whereas individual employee performance is defined as predicting perceived organizational performance. “an evaluation of the results of a person’s behavior: de- termining how well or poorly a person has accomplished Methods a task given” and it is found that motivation, personality Measurement and ability are the important factors affecting employees’ Data was collected with the help of self-administered performance [22]. Additionally, stress levels in an surveys introduced to health care workers currently organization are found to be positively affecting employed in four of the five largest public hospitals of organizational performance on the appropriate levels but North Cyprus. The collected data was evaluated and hy- when stress starts to increase, it leads to a decrease in pothesized model was tested with the help of Statistical individual and organizational performance [24]. Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22. In order Mostly, organizational performance is measured by to test the hypothesized model of the study, correlation evaluating the numerical data, which include the object- analysis and simple linear regression analyses were ive and timely information about how well the utilized. organization is doing. However, performance measure- The study aimed at testing the proposed model by ment is not always necessarily based on objective data. considering the organizational climate as the only inde- For example, customer satisfaction is measured accord- pendent variable while organizational commitment and ing to individual stories and managers decide on how perceived organizational performance were considered well an organization is doing according to those as the dependent variables. collected subjective data [25]. Perceived organizational The data was collected with the help of self- performance varies according to whose viewpoint is administered questionnaires and evaluated by using cor- taken within the organization such as customers or relations and simple linear regression in order to reveal stockholders. The time period observed and criteria used the nature and power of the hypothesized relationship also affect the perceived performance [26]. The concept between variables. Before utilizing the recently men- of perceived organizational performance specifically tioned tests, factor analysis and, consequently, reliability refers to the subjective measurement of employee analysis were carried out for each part of the instrument perceptions regarding an organization’s overall perform- in order to test the validity and reliability of the instru- ance when compared to the rivals in the same sector ment for the current research setting. and may be closely related to strategy and reward The questionnaires involved 5-point Likert scale mea- systems that directly affect the attitudes of employees sures and were adopted from the studies mentioned within an organization [27]. In this sense, human below: resources practices in an organization surely contribute to overall organizational performance and efficiency  Organizational Climate Scale (CLIOR) [29] since organizational performance can be defined as the  Organizational Commitment Questionnaire [30] individual perception of organizational efficiency by  Perceived Organizational Performance [31] employees [28]. Continuously, in order to enhance organizational performance it is important for manage- Organizational Climate Scale (CLIOR) was adopted ment to understand and find different sources of from the study of Peña-Suárez et al. [29]. The short ver- leadership that will lead to improved organizational per- sion of the questionnaire was adopted for the present formance [11]. Teamwork is also found to be one of the study, which included 15 items aimed to measure the antecedents for organizational performance [23]. organizational climate. The first 15 questions of the Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 5 of 9 survey consisted of questions regarding organizational Results climate. However, 1 item was removed after the pilot Descriptive findings study, which caused a problem with the reliability of the The majority of the study sample was female respon- instrument (Cronbach’s Alpha for 15 items: 0.567 and dents (74.6%) and were between 31 and 40 years of age Cronbach’s Alpha when one item was deleted: 0.884). (40.6%). Due to the fact that it was easier to reach nurses Therefore, 14 items of the CLIOR Scale were included in the hospital setting, the majority of the sample was into the main study. Questions from Meyer and Allen’s found to be nurses (48.4%). Percentage of nurses was [17] Organizational Commitment Questionnaire (OCQ) followed by a considerable amount of other health care were adopted in order to measure the level of employees like pharmacists, dieticians, radiology techni- organizational commitment of the health care employees. cians, medical secretaries, physiotherapists, chemists, There were 17 items aimed at measuring the organizational laboratory assistants and biologists (38%). Again, due to commitment score of the respondents. The overall another important fact that it was very difficult to reach organizational commitment score was taken as the average doctors in the hospital setting, the minority of the score of all three dimensions as suggested by Meyer and respondents was doctors (12.7%). Allen [30]. On the other hand, questions from Delaney and Lastly, when the frequency about tenure is reviewed, it Huselid’s[31] study regarding the perceived organizational is possible to conclude that there is an almost equal distri- performancewereusedtomeasure theoverall scoreof bution of the tenure between 1 to 10 years of work. The perceived organizational performance. majority mentioned that they have been working in the All three measurement instruments were originally same institution for more than 10 years (31.5%). produced in English language so, for the current re- Remaining population stated that they have been in the search, the items were translated into Turkish by using same organization for 5 to 10 years (25.4%) and 1 to back- translation method in order to get the best re- 5 years (21.1%). Only a minority of the population sponse from the participants. mentioned that they have been in the same organization for only less than 1 year (3.3%). Interestingly, 40 of the respondents (18.8%) rejected to state their tenure (Table 1). Sampling Currently, there are five large public hospitals in North Correlation analysis Cyprus. Current study utilized the information, which Subsequently, correlations were checked in order to was gathered from four large hospitals, and one hospital confirm the hypothesized relationship between inde- was not taken into the sample of the study. It was pendent variables and dependent variables. When corre- excluded from the scope of the study because of the lations are reviewed, it is possible to conclude that communication issues and unwillingness of the staff in organizational climate is positively correlated with both that public hospital. The universe of the study consisted organizational commitment and perceived organizational of 975 health care employees who are currently performance (Table 2). employed full time in those four hospitals. According to correlation coefficients of organizational Simple random sampling method was used in order to climate and organizational commitment, these two con- select the participants for the study. When calculating cepts have a positive relationship, which is found to have the minimum sample for respondents, which was a moderate strength level of 0.452 [32]. Therefore, it is required to represent the universe, 90% confidence level possible to accept that there is a positive relationship be- and 5 confidence interval was considered for total tween organizational climate and organizational com- population of N = 975 healthcare workers in four public mitment and thus, this finding supports Hypothesis 1. hospitals. When the sample for the study was calculated, When correlation coefficient of organizational climate the required sample size for the current study was found and perceived organizational performance is reviewed, the to be 212 respondents. relationship is found to be positive with a significantly Approximately 1000 questionnaires were distributed high strength level of 0.671. Therefore, it is possible to by hand, and around 220 were collected back. However, accept that there is a positive relationship between some of them were found to be inadequately answered, organizational climate and perceived organizational per- so they were left out of consideration. Finally, 213 formance, and Hypothesis 2 is supported with this finding. returned questionnaires were used and the response rate As an overall result, it is concluded that organizational was 21.8%. climate has a positive linear relationship with organizational The reliability of the measurement instruments was commitment and perceived organizational performance on studied before moving on to the actual analysis of moderate to high level of strength in terms of correlation hypothesis testing. The minimum level of Cronbach’s coefficients. After concluding that the relationship between Alpha was above 0.7 for all instruments. variables is a linear relationship, a test of normality was also Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 6 of 9 Table 1 Demographic data of respondents (N = 213) According to the results from correlation analysis, organizational commitment and age have a weak, posi- Variable Frequency Percentage (%) tive correlation at 0,05 significance level (0,174). This Gender can be concluded as older employees tend to have Female 159 74,6 higher levels of organizational commitment. Tenure and Male 52 24,4 organizational commitment have a weak and positive re- Missing 2 ,9 lationship (0,213) meaning that as employees remain in Age the same organization for a longer period of time, their Between 20 and 30 62 29,1 organizational commitment tends to increase. There is a positive but weak correlation between organizational Between 31 and 40 86 40,4 commitment and duty (0,186), which can be interpreted Between 41 and 50 56 26,3 as employees working in other positions (as pharmacists, More than 50 7 3,3 pharmacist helpers, dieticians, radiology technicians etc.) Missing 2 ,9 besides doctors, nurses and managers, tend to have Profession higher levels of organizational commitment. Doctor / Practitioner 27 12,7 Continuously, organizational climate was found to have a negative and weak correlation with salary (− 0,163). This Nurse 103 48,4 result can represent that employees tend to observe the Other 81 38,0 climate in their organizations less when they receive Missing 2 ,9 higher salaries. Tenure Lastly, perceived organizational performance was also Less than one year 7 3,3 found to have a negative and weak correlation with 1–5 Years 45 21,1 salary (− 0,205). This result can be interpreted as em- ployees tend to be concerned less about organizational 5–10 Years 54 25,4 performance when they receive higher salaries. More than 10 Years 67 31,5 Missing 40 18,8 Regression analysis Due to the fact that the study adopted only one independent variable and aimed to find out the direct run in order to see the normal distribution before the simple influence of organizational climate on the dependent linear regression. As a result, both organizational commitment variables without a confounding effect or variable, and perceived organizational performance values were found simple linear regression analysis was carried out. Initial to have normal distribution (sig. 0.200 > 0.05). regression analysis was conduced to test the relationship Additionally, control variables were included in the cor- between organizational climate and organizational com- relations matrix in order to comprehend the relationships mitment in the first place. between demographic variables and organizational climate, Organizational climate was found to be statistically organizational commitment and perceived organizational significant in predicting organizational commitment performance. (0.000 < 0.05) so, Hypothesis 3 was supported (Table 3). Table 2 Intercorrelations among control variables, organizational climate, organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance Variable 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1. Organizational Climate 1000 2. Organizational Commitment 0,452 1000 a a 3. Perceived Organizational Performance 0,671 0,436 1000 4. Gender 0,003 0,050 0,077 1000 5. Age 0,053 0,174 − 0,048 0,083 1000 6. Marital Status −0,041 − 0,020 − 0,022 0,113 − 0,094 1000 7. Duty −0,027 0,186 − 0,097 −0,132 0,017 0,005 1000 b a a b 8. Salary −0,163 − 0,022 −0,205 0,065 0,438 − 0,014 −0,201 1000 a a a a 9. Tenure 0,018 0,213 − 0,082 −0,026 0,579 − 0,149 0,218 0,458 1000 Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed) Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 7 of 9 Table 3 Simple linear regression organizational climate and organizational commitment B Std. Error Beta t Sig. Constant 1.695 .214 7.907 .000 Organizational Climate .410 .062 .452 6.589 .000 Dependent Variable: Organizational Commitment R : 0.204 Sig: < 0.05 Furthermore, as a result of the regression analysis, it is Fig. 1 Tested model of the study possible to predict the organizational commitment by organizational climate by the equation as follows: variables, organizational commitment and perceived organizational performance, which is present as 20.4% Organizational commitment and 45% respectively. ¼ 1:695 þ 0:410ðÞ Organizational climate Discussion The predictive power of regression equation was found The results of the study provided critical information to be 0.204 meaning that 20.4% of organizational com- regarding the influence of organizational climate on mitment’s variance can be predicted by organizational organizational commitment and perceived organizational climate. performance in four largest public hospitals included in Continuously, second linear regression analysis was the study. Results from the regression analysis suggested conducted in order to evaluate the relationship between that organizational climate has an impact on predicting organizational climate and perceived organizational per- organizational commitment and perceived organizational formance. Organizational climate was found to be statis- performance of the employees in public hospitals of tically significant in predicting perceived organizational North Cyprus. Organizational climate is found to be sta- performance (0.000 < 0.05) and Hypothesis 4 was sup- tistically significant in determining the organizational ported (Table 4). commitment of the employees. Continuously, there was As a result of the regression analysis, it is possible to a positive and linear relationship between these two vari- predict the perceived organizational performance by ables. This can be interpreted as if the organizational cli- organizational climate by the equation as follows: mate scores of the employees are high, organizational commitment scores of the employees are high at the same time. In other words, if the employees in public Perceived organizational performance hospitals of North Cyprus perceive the organizational ¼ 0:471 þ 0:769ðÞ Organizational climate climate in a positive way, they will have higher levels of The prediction power of regression equation was organizational commitment. However, the predictive found to be 0.450 meaning that 45% of perceived power of organizational climate on organizational com- organizational performance’s variance can be predicted mitment is not significantly high by 20%, which means by organizational climate. that the organizational climate is only effective in pre- As a result of the regression analysis, it is possible to dicting organizational commitment by 20%. adjust the proposed model as follows: (Fig. 1). On the other hand, the prediction power of the The findings from the regression concluded that there organizational climate on perceived organizational per- is a strong influence of organizational climate on formance is found to be significantly high by - 45%, perceived organizational performance and a moderate which means that if employees perceive a positive influence on organizational commitment. By using the organizational climate in their organizations, they tend equations which were constructed by results of regres- to perceive the organizational performance higher in sion analysis, it is possible to predict how much influ- comparison to competitors. ence does organizational climate have on the dependent Consequently, in order to reach positive levels of organizational climate in hospital settings, it is important Table 4 Simple Linear Regression Organizational Climate and for decision makers to understand and improve the Perceived Organizational Performance components of organizational climate. B Std. Error Beta t Sig. Constant .471 .223 2.112 .036 Conclusion Firstly, it is important to create an environment of trust Organizational Climate .769 .065 .671 11.805 .000 2 involving good relationships with supervisors to contrib- Dependent Variable: Perceived Organizational Performance R : 0.450 Sig: < 0.05 ute to the organizational commitment of the employees Berberoglu BMC Health Services Research (2018) 18:399 Page 8 of 9 and improve their perception of organizational perform- Continuously, there was no analysis regarding a con- ance. Employees should be openly communicating with founding variable. Therefore, a mediating or moderating their supervisors and receiving feedback and support relationship was not sought for organizational commit- when needed. In addition, adopting work teams can ment in respect to the influence of organizational cli- improve the work environment by constituting a warm mate on perceived organizational performance. and cooperating atmosphere while reducing the conflict. Abbreviations Continuously, autonomy is another important aspect CLIOR: Organizational Climate Scale; OCQ: Organizational Commitment where employees take full responsibility of their jobs and Questionnaire; SPSS: Statistical Package for Social Sciences can take initiatives. At this point, practicing in participa- Acknowledgements tive management will be useful for the decision makers This article was derived from Ph.D. Thesis of Dr. Aysen Berberoglu, which so that they share the authority with the employees was written under the supervision and with considerable contribution of Prof. Dr. Hikmet Seçim from Cyprus International University. allowing them to take more responsibilities, which will contribute, to their commitment and perceptions. Availability of data and materials Secondly, the perception of employees on equality and Available upon request. Raw data can be gathered from Dr. Berberoglu. fairness in distribution of rewards is also crucial. Author’s contributions Managers should offer rewards to their employees and AB is the only author of the article and the study was solely carried out by at the same time watch over the distribution of rewards the author. The author read and approved the final manuscript. to create a positive climate because a perception of Ethics approval and consent to participate unfairness can cause a reverse impact. Data was collected by questionnaires from volunteer respondents who was Thirdly, organizational structure, including regulations, employed at public hospitals. Permission was gathered from Ministry of standards and organization of work, is also another com- Health in order to access the hospitals and reach the respondents. ponent of organizational climate, which has an impact on Competing interests organizational commitment and perceived organizational The author declares that she has no competing interests. performance. It is not only important for the patients but also for the physical conditions of employees. In order to Publisher’sNote create a positive organizational climate, decision makers Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. can transform the current mechanistic structure of the public hospitals into more of an organic structure, which Received: 10 September 2016 Accepted: 25 April 2018 includes flexibility and decentralization. Lastly, organic structures can also contribute to open- References ness to innovation and reduce the resistance to change. 1. James LR, Choi CC, Ko CHE, McNeil PK, Minton MK, Wright MA, Kim K. Considering that organic structures are sensitive to the Organizational and psychological climate: a review of theory and research. external environment, they are always open to change Eur. J. Work Organ. Psy. 2008;17(1):5–32. 2. Mullins L. Management and Organizational behavior ninth. Ed. 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BMC Health Services ResearchSpringer Journals

Published: Jun 1, 2018

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