European Archives of Paediatric Dentistry (2018) 19:155–161
ORIGINAL SCIENTIFIC ARTICLE
Impact of oral hygiene and socio-demographic factors on dental caries
in a suburban population in Nigeria
T. A. Oyedele
· A. D. Fadeju
· Y. I. Adeyemo
· C. L. Nzomiwu
· A. M. Ladeji
Received: 16 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 April 2018 / Published online: 14 May 2018
© European Academy of Paediatric Dentistry 2018
Aim This was to determine dental caries determinants in the study participants.
Methodology This was a secondary data study extracted from primary data through a school-based study that recruited
students from primary and secondary schools in a suburban population in Nigeria. The variables included age, gender, socio-
economic status, oral hygiene status, type of parenting, birth rank, family size and presence of dental caries. The diagnosis of
dental caries was based on the World Health Oral Health Survey recommendations while oral hygiene was determined using
simpliﬁed-oral hygiene index (OHI-S). Data was analysed using STATA version 13, statistical signiﬁcance was set at P < 0.05.
Results The prevalence of dental caries for the study population was 12.2%, DMFT and dmft were 0.16 and 0.06 respec-
tively. Children within age groups 11–13 and 14–16 years had reduced chances of having dental caries (P = 0.01; P = 0.01);
children with fair oral hygiene and poor oral hygiene had increased odds of having dental caries (P ≤ 0.001; P ≤ 0.001), last
child of the family also had increased odds of having dental caries while children from large family size had reduced odds
of having dental caries. This study also showed that ﬁrst permanent molars and second primary molars were mostly aﬀected
by dental caries but there was no signiﬁcant diﬀerence between distribution of the maxillary or mandibular jaw or between
right and left quadrants.
Conclusion Age, oral hygiene, birth rank and family size were the signiﬁcant determinants of dental caries in the study
population and the teeth mostly aﬀected were ﬁrst permanent molars and second primary molars.
Keywords Dental caries · Type of parenting · Oral hygiene · Birth rank · Family size
Dental caries is a complex chronic oral disease and the most
prevalent chronic disease of childhood (Mignogma and Fed-
ele 2006). It refers to the localised destruction of susceptible
dental hard tissues by acidic by-products from the bacterial
fermentation of dietary carbohydrate (Pau et al. 2008).
In spite of a range of oral diseases aﬀecting the world’s
population, dental caries continues to be the most prevalent
oral disease in children and adolescents worldwide, leading
to pain, poor nutrition, time out of school and interference
with quality of life (Petersen 2003; Egri and Gunay 2004;
Blumenshine et al. 2008).
Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that has a com-
plex interaction of cultural, social, behavioural, nutritional
and biological risk factors that are associated with its ini-
tiation and progression (Ismail et al. 1997). Other factors
include poor oral hygiene (Parisotto et al. 2010; Arora et al.
2011) low maternal education (Congiu et al. 2014; Baggio
* T. A. Oyedele
Department of Surgery, Benjamin Carson (Snr), School
of Medicine, Babcock University, Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State,
Dental Department, Babcock University Teaching Hospital,
Ilisan-Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria
Department of Child Dental Health, Faculty of Dentistry,
Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria
Department of Child Dental Health, Bayero University Kano,
Department of Child Oral Health, University of Lagos,
Department of Oral Pathology and Medicine, Faculty
of Dentistry, Lagos State University College of Medicine,
Ikeja, Lagos, Nigeria