Impact of excessive groundwater pumping on rejuvenation processes in the Bandung basin (Indonesia) as determined by hydrogeochemistry and modeling

Impact of excessive groundwater pumping on rejuvenation processes in the Bandung basin... In the Bandung basin, Indonesia, excessive groundwater pumping caused by rapid increases in industrialization and population growth has caused subsurface environmental problems, such as excessive groundwater drawdown and land subsidence. In this study, multiple hydrogeochemical techniques and numerical modeling have been applied to evaluate the recharge processes and groundwater age (rejuvenation). Although all the groundwater in the Bandung basin is recharged at the same elevation at the periphery of the basin, the water type and residence time of the shallow and deep groundwater could be clearly differentiated. However, there was significant groundwater drawdown in all the depression areas and there is evidence of groundwater mixing between the shallow and deep groundwater. The groundwater mixing was traced from the high dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC- 12) concentrations in some deep groundwater samples and by estimating the rejuvenation ratio (R) in some representative observation wells. The magnitude of CFC-12 concentration, as an indicator of young groundwater, showed a good correlation with R,determined using C activity in samples taken between 2008 and 2012. These correlations were confirmed with the estimation of vertical downward flux from shallower to deeper aquifers using numerical modeling. Furthermore, the change in vertical flux is affected by the change in groundwater pumping. Since the 1970s, the vertical flux increased significantly and reached approximately 15% of the total pumping amount during the 2000s, as it compensated the groundwater pumping. This study clearly revealed the processes of groundwater impact caused by excessive groundwater pumping using a combination of hydrogeochemical methods and modeling. . . . . Keywords Over-abstraction Groundwater age Groundwater mixing Numerical modeling Indonesia * Ahmad Taufiq Introduction ahmad.taufiq@pu.go.id; ahmadrentcar@gmail.com Groundwater is an essential and valuable water resource in many developing countries, especially in cities where there Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumomoto 860-8555, Japan is pressure on public water supply because of insufficient in- frastructure. In many areas, groundwater can be used easily Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia and inexpensively, and it normally has good quality with re- spect to human health and industrial purposes. Population, Research Center for Water Resources, Ministry of Public Work and Housing, Juanda 193, Bandung 40135, Indonesia industrial and economic growth are often significant, with consequent increases in groundwater exploitation to meet de- Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumomoto 860-8555, Japan mand. Thus, a sustainable use of groundwater resources is required urgently in many cases, taking account of the region- Graduate School of Fisheries and Environmental Science, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-Machi, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan al groundwater flow dynamics (Kagabu et al. 2013). Some subsurface environmental problems have been reported that Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia are the result of excessive groundwater pumping such as in- creasing underground temperature (Yamano et al. 2009; Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia Taniguchi et al. 2009), groundwater drawdown and land 1264 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 subsidence (Foster and Chilton 2003), and groundwater re- hydrogeochemical characteristics, aquifer heterogeneity, and newal (Yamanaka et al. 2011;Kagabu et al. 2013). field-scale parameterizations, and then simulating a ground- In some large Asian cities, groundwater level drawdowns water flow model (Dai et al. 2010, 2014). One of the impacts have been reported (Taniguchi et al. 2008; Yamanaka et al. of excessive groundwater pumping is to cause changes in the 2011; Kagabu et al. 2011, 2013). It is also suggested that the groundwater rejuvenation process. Understanding these degree of groundwater drawdown depends on the development changes is an important task for effective groundwater stage of each city (Taniguchi et al. 2008; Onodera et al. 2009; management because such changes can cause unexpected Kagabu et al. 2011). In Indonesia, significant groundwater problems such as groundwater quality degradation and the drawdown, and consequently land subsidence and even disturbance of regional groundwater flow systems (Kagabu groundwater quality changes, have been reported in cities such et al. 2013). as Jakarta, Bandung, and Semarang (Wirakusumah and This study describes the rejuvenation processes of the Danaryanto 2004; Taniguchi et al. 2008; Umezawa et al. Bandung basin by using multiple hydrogeochemical tech- 2008; Hosono et al. 2011,Kagabuetal. 2011, 2013). niques (stable isotopes, major ions, and CFC-12 analyses) In the Bandung basin, groundwater pumping has been and estimating a rejuvenation ratio (R)for C activity, recorded since the early 1900s and found to be increasing and then testing this with numerical modeling. The objec- (unpublished report, 1991) by Sutrisno, see Table 1). tives are to systematically examine the groundwater flow Since 1970, many textile factories have been established system, to trace the rejuvenation processes, and to reveal in this basin. These factories rely almost entirely on the groundwater fluxes, thus demonstrating how under- groundwater and have caused significant groundwater standing the rejuvenation phenomenon is important for drawdowns. In addition, 60% of the total water demand management of some human activity with respect to of the Bandung basin is supplied by groundwater groundwater resource protection. (Wangsaatmaja et al. 2006). Consequently, land subsi- dence has occurred at a rate of 5–75 cm between 2000 and 2008 (Abidin et al. 2008). According to calculations Study area by Taufiq (2010), the groundwater drawdown has contrib- uted to 30–70% of the land subsidence rate. The Bandung-Soreang groundwater basin, commonly known Recent studies have emphasized the impact of subsurface as the Bandung basin, is located in the center of the western environmental problems, but in this study the focus is on part of Java, an island of Indonesia. This intra-montane basin describing the processes that leading to these impacts. is surrounded by up to 2,400-m-high volcanic rocks of the late Understanding and predicting these processes at basin Tertiary and Quaternary. The Citarum River flows in the cen- scale entails developing and integrating knowledge of ter of the basin, and is the main river. This basin is one of most Table 1 The unpublished reports/papers featured in this report Author/s Year Title Organization (Republic of Indonesia) Geyh MA 1990 Isotopic hydrological study in the Bandung Basin – Indonesia. Directorate of Environmental Geology; Project Report No. 10 Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Iwaco – Waseco, Ministry of 1990 West Java Provincial Water Sources Master Plan for Water Directorate General for Human Public Works Supply, Bandung. Settlements; Directorate of Water Supply; Ministry of Public Works Office of Energy and Mineral 2010 Evaluation and updating of conservation zone in Office of Energy and Mineral Resources - Resources - West Java Bandung-Soreang groundwater basin, Bekasi-Karawang West Java Province Province groundwater basin and Sukabumi groundwater basin Office of Energy and Mineral 2004 Monitoring of groundwater condition in Bandung-Soreang Office of Energy and Mineral Resources - Resources - West Java groundwater basin, Bogor groundwater basin and West Java Province Province Bekasi-Karawang groundwater basin Office of Energy and Mineral 2002 Master plan study for the utilization of groundwater in Office of Energy and Mineral Resources - Resources - West Java Bandung-Soreang groundwater basin West Java Province Province, LPPM–ITB Sutrisno D 1991 Utilization, impact and countermeasures of groundwater Directorate of Environmental Geology; abstraction in Bandung basin Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1265 developed basins in Indonesia. It has an area of 2,300 km A geological map of the Bandung basin has been generated and five administrative areas—three regencies (part of by Hutasoit (2009), and is presented in Fig. 1.The Bandung, West Bandung and Sumedang) and two cities hydrostratigraphy of this basin is classified (older to younger (Bandung and Cimahi). The central part of the basin, order) into the following three formations: Cikapundung mostly comprising urban and industrial areas, is a plain Formation (basement rock), Cibeureum Formation (the main measuring about 40 km east–west and about 30 km north– aquifer), and Kosambi Formation (aquitard). A description of south. The population in Bandung basin is currently more each formation follows: than 7 million people. As regards the regional climate of the Bandung basin, the mean annual temperature is about & The Cikapundung Formation is the oldest rock exposed in 23.7 °C, the annual precipitation is 1,500–2,500 mm, and this basin and consists of conglomerates and compacted the annual potential evapotranspiration is 1,606 mm breccia, tuff, and andesite lava. The estimated age of this (Nurliana 2009). Meanwhile, wet season usually occurs formation is early Pleistocene. The high degree of com- in September–May throughout the region and dry season paction of this formation differentiates it from the occurs during June–August—unpublished report (1991) Cibeureum Formation, and forms the basement of the by Iwaco-Waseco (see Table 1). groundwater basin. Fig. 1 Location map of the sampling points plotted on a geological map of Bandung basin (Hutasoit 2009). Three representative hydrogeological cross sections of the Bandung basin along the A–A′ line, B–B′ line and C–C′ line. The C–C′ line is shown in Figs. 4 and 5 1266 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 & The Cibeureum Formation lies under the Kosambi samples were collected from springs, dug wells, production Formation and is found in the periphery of the basin, as wells, and observation wells. Sampling and field measure- a fan-shaped distribution of volcanic deposits. It is com- ments were carried out following standard procedures posed of partially consolidated breccia and tuff deposits, (Wood 1981). Some in situ tests such as temperature, pH, with some lava intrusions, and is late Pleistocene– dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC), and ox- Holocene age. idation–reduction level (ORP) of the water samples were mea- & The Kosambi Formation is the upper surface layer and is sured in the field with minimal atmospheric contact and by distributed in the center of this basin, as a lake deposit. Its using a portable meter (WM-32EP, TOA DKK Inc). lithology consists of unconsolidated claystone, siltstone, All the water samples were collected after purging the and sandstone of Holocene age. wells and were filtered using 0.2-μm cellulose acetate fil- ters (Advantec) before storing. The samples for analysis of 18 2 + + stable isotopes (δ Oand δ H) and major ions (Na ,K , 2+ 2+ − − − − Ca ,Mg ,Cl ,SO ,HCO ; NO ) were collected in 100- The most recent study of the groundwater flow system 4 3 3 ml polyethylene bottles for analyses at the chemical labo- of the Bandung basin was done by Sunarwan (2014), using ratory of the Center of Geological Resources, Geological descriptions of cuttings, drilling well logs, resistivity logs, Agency of Indonesia. Major cations were analyzed using major ions, and stable isotopes. Hydrostratigrapically, the Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (4100 Bandung basin can be divided into three units—units of MP-AES, Agilent Technologies Inc) and the major anions hydrostratigraphy 1 (UHs 1), UHs 2, and UHs 3. UHs 1 using ion chromatography (DIONEX ICS 1600, Thermo is composed of three layers: sandy tuff, clayey sand and Fisher Scientific Inc). The analytical error for major ions silty clay, as a combined aquitard which contains analyses was typically within 10%. Stable isotopes were shallow groundwater. UHs 2 (composed of two layers: measured relative to VSMOW (Vienna Standard Mean sandy silt and tuffaceous sandstone) and UHs 3 Ocean Water) by using an integrated isotope analyzer (composed of one layer, tuffaceous breccia) are distinct (Picarro L2120, Picarro Inc). The analytical error for the lithologically, but it is not clear if they are hydrologi- stable isotopes analyses was ±0.2% for δ O and ±1.0% for cally separate; therefore, UHs 2 and UHs 3 were δ H. combined as a combined UHs which contains deep Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are useful tools for tracing groundwater as a semi-confined and confined aquifer. and dating groundwater after 1945 (Busenberg and Priowirjanto (1985) and Arianto (2010) also divided Plummer 1992;Plummeretal. 2000, 2001) because the the groundwater into two systems: a shallow and a deep release of CFCs into the atmosphere started after the groundwater flow system. The shallow groundwater is 1940s (USGS 2010). Therefore, CFCs were employed as foundinanaquitard withlocal flow.Thedeep ground- a marker for young groundwater; consequently, if the water is allied in a semi-confined and confined aquifer samples possess some dissolved CFCs, it means a fraction with an intermediate and regional flow. of the water had been recharged since 1940. The samples For the purposes of this study, the authors also divided for CFCs analyses were collected in triplicate and stored the groundwater flow system in the Bandung basin into in glass bottles sealed with metal-lined caps (Busenberg shallow and deep groundwater flow systems. It was con- and Plummer 1992). The CFCs were analyzed using sidered that the shallow groundwater is from a combined closed-system purge-and-trap gas chromatography and aquitard (UHs 1) which can be accessed via dug wells, an electron capture detector (GC-2014, Shimadzu Inc) at which will be defined as zone S (see section ‘Model de- the Hydrology Laboratory of Kumamoto University, scription’). This assumption concurs with all previous Japan. The analytical uncertainty associated with the studies. It was also assumed that the deep groundwater CFC analyses was less than 5%. The values were reported is from a combined UHs and is obtained using drilled only if the concentrations of at least two measurements wells, which will be defined as zone D (see section were within 10% for concentrations higher than 100 ρg/ ‘Model description’). This assumption follows the ap- kg as the detection limit (Johnston et al. 1998). proach of Hutasoit (2009), with the deep groundwater A numerical groundwater flow model was applied to obtained from interconnected multi-aquifers belonging to reveal the fluxes in the rejuvenation processes in the the Cibeureum Formation. Bandung basin. A modular three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference groundwater flow model and structured rectilinear grid operating system was used—the Visual Sampling and methodology MODFLOW Classic v.2011 (Waterloo Hydrogeologic Inc). The model was constructed for a long-term ground- As part of this study, 40 shallow and 65 deep groundwater water flow system, from 1950 to 2015. samples were collected between May and July 2015. The Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1267 Results the boundary. The ORP value was also used to indicate aero- bic conditions. That the deep groundwater changes from aer- Groundwater potential obic to anaerobic was confirmed by the changes from uncon- fined to confined below the Kosambi Formation. Measurement of shallow and deep groundwater levels was The deep groundwater indicates more progression in geo- done by the basin authority: the Office of Energy and chemical evolution than the shallow groundwater. The clearest + 2+ Mineral Resources, West Java Province (see unpublished examples are the enrichment of Na rather of Ca and the report, 2010, in Table 1). The results show that the shallow mNa/Ca ratio (Fig. 5). The increasing mNa/Cl ratio, an indi- groundwater flows correspond with the local topographic pat- cator of strong rock interaction, is also shown clearly. It can be tern (Fig. 2a). Shallow groundwater flows from the periphery seen on the distribution maps that the Ca-HCO type was to the center of the basin, with levels strongly influenced by dominant at the periphery of this basin, and changed to the the season and the amount of rainfall. The shallow groundwa- Na-HCO type after reaching the center of the basin. This ter level showed very little drawdown or significant variations change could be explained by the cation exchange reaction 2+ + (Fig. 2b); however, the deep groundwater potential for 2010 (Ca ⇔ Na ; Appelo and Postma 2005). The cation exchange showed some groundwater depression cones in the textile in- reaction in deep groundwater also occurred in the groundwa- dustry areas such as Cimahi (CMHI), Rancaekek (RCK), and ter flow system of the Osaka basin in Thailand (Yamanaka Dayeuhkolot (DHYK; Fig. 2b). The results for the deep et al. 2011) and the Jakarta basin in Indonesia (Kagabu et al. groundwater potentials in this study (Fig. 2b) clearly show 2011). that the groundwater depressions have become deeper. In the CMHI area, which has the biggest drawdown, groundwater Stable isotopes levels dropped from 620 m relative to sea level (sl) in 2010 to 18 2 610 m sl in 2015. The same phenomenon also occurred in the Stable isotope ratios of oxygen (δ O) and hydrogen (δ H) are RCK and DHYK areas, but with smaller drawdowns. ideal tracers for identifying the source of groundwater. The results presented in Table 2 show that the groundwater sam- Major ions ples were almost all within the same range, but the deep groundwater had a slightly more homogeneous range (−7.4 18 2 Table 2 shows the results of the hydrogeochemical analyses. to −3.8% δ Oand −54 to −34% δ H) than the shallow 18 2 Figure 3a,b shows the distribution maps of water type classi- groundwater (−7.4 to −3.8% δ Oand −54 to −34% δ H). fied on the basis of major ions using a Stiff diagram. The These almost identical ranges of values indicate that the shal- distribution of shallow groundwater generally shows the water low and deep groundwater were recharged at approximately was a Ca-HCO and Na-HCO type only in the center of this the same elevation. These results are in agreement with anal- 3 3 basin, where flows are slower or stagnant. A Ca-Cl type was yses of the groundwater source determined by the only found at the southern side of the basin because of prox- temperature-depth profile that showed the recharge area to imity to a hot spring. In contrast, the distribution map of deep be at the periphery of the basin (Delinom and Suridarma groundwater shows a different dominant water type, the Na- 2010). HCO type, but there were some seemingly random occur- rences of the Ca-HCO type in all the groundwater depression CFC-12 concentration areas. Evaluating the redox processes is an essential tool for un- CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 concentrations were mea- derstanding geochemical evolution in groundwater systems sured for all the samples, but only the CFC-12 concentration according to Chapelle et al. (1995). Usually the ORP value was used as a marker for young groundwater in this study is used to evaluate the redox potential (Lindberg and Runnells because of its stability in the subsurface environment 1984). Figure 4 shows a geological cross-section with param- (Plummer et al. 1998). As presented in Table 2, the CFC-12 eters in line with the flow path. The south to north cross- concentration in the shallow groundwater exhibited a wide section (C′–C cross-section) is the most representative cross- range (12.2–540.8 pptv). Moreover, some of the shallow section towards the flow path because it crosses the DHYK groundwater exceeded the maximum atmospheric concentra- area where the magnitude of groundwater drawdown is the tion (>546 pptv; USGS 2010). For the samples with CFC-12 smallest. A redox boundary was found in the deep groundwa- concentrations greater than 546 pptv, it was not possible to ter at 14 km along this section, marked by a change in the evaluate the exact residence time of the groundwater because redox level (ORP) of <0 mV, coinciding with a complete the samples were contaminated by local CFC sources. This reaction of oxygen (DO) of 2 mg/l. A change in temperature phenomenon has also been reported in some large cities such was found near the northern limit of the section: increasing as Las Vegas and New York in the USA, and Beijing in China from 25 ± 1 °C at a fairly constant rate to 28 ± 1 °C just after (Carlson et al. 2011). 1268 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1269 Fig. 2 Historical change of groundwater potential map for shallow and groundwater depression areas—for example, in the CHMI deep groundwater in a 2010 and b 2015. There is no significant difference area approximately 50% of deep wells (10, 2, 3, 5, 6c, 4, 6b, in shallow groundwater for the two periods; however, there are three 7c, 7, and 7b) had CFC-12 concentrations of more than 100 groundwater depression areas in deep groundwater (CMHI, RCK, and pptv. The samples from all the other depression areas (RCK DHYK area). The analyses of some representative observation wells (1, 6 and 8) are presented in Table 2 and Fig. 6, and for all observation wells and DHYK) that also possessed CFC-12 concentrations are presented in Fig. 8 presented in Fig. 4. This reveals that shallow, younger ground- water clearly contributes to the rejuvenation of deep ground- Figure 3c,d shows the distribution of CFC-12 concentra- water in the Bandung basin. Furthermore, for each groundwa- tion (pptv) on the land use map. The shallow groundwater ter depression area, the magnitude of groundwater drawdown with a high CFC-12 concentration indicates a modern has an impact on groundwater mixing that will be discussed (young) groundwater age and that it was recharged after the further in a separate study. 1940s. This result is consistent with Tritium ( H) analyses that The rejuvenation ratio (R) was calculated as an indicator of indicated an apparent age of 12.35–58.38 years (3.13–0.23 rejuvenation based on C activity (in pMC; percent of ‘modern TU; Sunarwan 2014). In contrast, the deep groundwater had carbon’) in deep groundwater. At three observation wells, repre- a low CFC-12 concentration, and most of the deep wells had sentative of different depression areas (1, 6, and 8; as presented in no CFC-12 or were below the detection limit. This result Fig. 2b) samples had been taken in 2008 and in 2012, as listed in agrees with C analyses that indicated that the apparent age Table 3. The measured pMC activity exhibited an increasing was 1,291–35,000 years—Wahyudin Matahelumual 2008; tendency implying that the apparent groundwater age decreased Satrio et al. 2012; and an unpublished report (1990) by in 2012. This phenomenon is the so-called ‘rejuvenation’ of Geyh (see Table 1). However, some of the deep groundwater groundwater age (Stewart et al. 2004; Kagabu et al. 2013). To samples from the groundwater depression areas had high discuss rejuvenation based on the observed C activity, R is CFC-12 concentrations, indicating that modern (young) determined as an indicator of rejuvenation (Eq. 1). groundwater might be recharged to the deeper aquifer. R −R m o R ¼  100 ð1Þ Discussion In Eq. (1), R (dimensionless) is a ratio between the difference of C activity (pMC) in two different years to concentration at Groundwater flow system of the Bandung basin the initial year, and R and R (pMC), respectively denote the o m C activity in 2008 (initial year) and 2012 (measured year) This report discusses the groundwater flow system for both the Figure 6 shows that R increases with CFC-12 concentra- shallow and deep groundwater in the Bandung basin based on the tion. The strong relationship is an indication that greater shal- results of all the hydrogeochemical data. According to the results low groundwater intrusion provides higher R values—for ex- of the stable isotope analyses, all the groundwater is recharged at ample, the CMHI area with the largest groundwater draw- the periphery of the basin. After recharge, the groundwater flows down had the highest average CFC-12 concentration (190 are divided into two major systems, i.e. shallow and deep ground- pptv) and the highest R (50%). This relationship will be fur- water flow systems. This subdivision is consistent with the strat- ther investigated by the following numerical modeling. ification of the local geology. Comparing the distribution map of water type with the distribution map of CFC-12 concentrations for shallow groundwater, shows that the Ca-HCO type with high Groundwater flow modeling CFC-12 concentrations occur at the periphery of the basin, while the Na-HCO type with low CFC-12 concentrations occurs in the Model description center of the basin (Fig. 3). In addition, for the deep groundwater, the Na-HCO type water had low or no CFC-12 concentrations, A 3D model of the groundwater flow system in the Bandung which indicates a relatively long residence time. Since there were basin was first accomplished by Hutasoit (2009). The model Ca-HCO types that appear to be randomly distributed in the domain covers an area of approximately 4,225 km . The mod- groundwater depression areas, it is assumed that the subsurface el is divided into a grid of equally spaced 0.5-km cells, with environment has been disturbed. This assumption will be ad- 130 grid lines for both rows and columns, and has 16,900 cells dressed in the following discussion. (Fig. 7a). The vertical extent of the Bandung basin is repre- sented by two groundwater flow systems that denoted into six Rejuvenation processes model layers (Fig. 7b) and the thickness of each layer repre- sents the hydrogeological layer thickness. Layers L1, L2 and Some high CFC-12 concentrations were found in some of the L3 are set as the shallow groundwater system from a com- deep groundwater samples that were collected in all the bined aquitard (defined as zone S). Layer L4, L5 and L6 are 1270 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 Table 2 Results for chemical and isotopes analyses of shallow and deep groundwater 2+ 2+ + + − − − − 18 2 Sample Ca Mg Na K HCO Cl SO NO δ O δ H Temp DO ORP CFC-12 CFC-12 3 4 3 No. (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (%) (%) (°C) (mg/l) (mV) (pptv) apparent residence time (years) Shallow groundwater 1 38.2 38.2 11.1 42.3 0.0 277.4 20.2 9.0 −5.2 −43.0 23.0 4.9 90.0 85.0 39.8 2 38.1 38.1 11.0 42.4 0.0 278.7 20.4 8.7 −5.2 −43.0 23.0 3.7 90.0 488.0 28.3 3 38.9 38.9 12.2 46.8 0.0 227.2 13.5 41.8 −5.3 −43.5 24.4 4.1 95.7 –– 4 51.0 51.0 18.1 24.0 34.3 121.1 44.4 87.2 −6.9 −42.8 24.9 5.8 191.0 630.8 Contam. 5 65.1 65.1 25.5 27.5 42.3 176.4 77.6 104.7 −5.4 −35.0 24.5 6.7 102.0 579.0 Contam. 6 55.1 15.5 28.3 11.7 176.2 77.5 104.9 3.9 −6.3 −44.1 25.0 4.3 124.0 327.3 34.9 6a 62.0 23.1 31.1 6.4 168.4 86.6 43.3 1.4 −5.5 −39.0 24.5 5.2 192.0 9.1 64.8 7 75.5 75.5 9.1 16.7 3.9 276.7 5.8 3.8 −5.3 −44.0 25.1 3.3 85.0 159.8 24.8 9 51.1 18.1 23.9 9.4 121.1 44.1 87.2 10.4 −6.9 −42.8 24.8 5.0 84.0 767.9 Contam. 10 76.6 9.2 17.0 8.2 280.7 6.0 90.1 1.7 −6.2 −46.8 24.5 4.0 68.2 646.7 Contam. 11 52.4 15.5 27.4 10.3 248.1 12.0 49.7 9.0 −5.2 −42.7 23.8 2.9 82.0 192.7 42.3 11a 52.5 15.5 27.1 10.3 247.9 11.0 49.5 9.0 −5.2 −42.7 23.3 1.8 162.0 646.7 Contam. 12 53.8 17.8 61.2 9.0 283.6 33.5 34.3 1.0 −4.9 −41.8 26.1 3.9 130.0 – 13 56.6 18.5 76.1 34.4 371.5 91.1 32.5 4.8 −5.3 −45.0 26.5 2.1 116.0 40.4 54.8 15a 45.2 18.8 31.9 10.2 290.5 20.9 21.8 2.3 –– – – 115.0 692.8 Contam. 16 61.2 19.7 89.4 27.2 423.1 111.3 24.5 5.8 −4.9 −41.5 25.5 4.2 107.0 84.7 49.4 18 55.0 15.3 29.1 11.4 177.0 77.3 104.6 3.9 −5.3 −44.1 23.8 3.5 125.0 1,132.0 Contam. 19 62.4 23.1 30.3 6.5 168.3 86.5 43.3 3.3 −4.5 −29.8 24.9 3.5 90.0 250.3 39.8 20 55.5 14.5 48.1 13.5 310.2 16.8 29.2 1.1 −6.2 −48.5 26.5 3.7 173.0 21.3 59.8 21a 19.6 11.0 60.1 5.8 251.9 52.3 1.8 1.3 −4.9 −41.8 – 6.6 90.0 58.2 52.3 23 58.2 22.8 69.7 16.4 385.8 91.2 18.9 1.7 −3.9 −41.5 24.8 2.5 87.0 56.0 52.5 24 53.9 17.6 61.1 8.9 283.8 33.4 34.5 2.0 −5.5 −48.0 26.0 4.2 174.0 12.2 63.3 26 54.0 17.6 58.1 8.8 283.8 33.5 34.7 1.1 −4.9 −41.8–– – – – 27 61.1 61.1 25.5 37.4 42.2 176.3 77.1 104.2 −5.4 −35.0 24.1 3.6 4.7 579.0 Contam. 28 42.0 16.7 60.2 9.9 176.2 47.2 1.4 1.3 −4.2 −38.4 26.4 1.9 26.4 345.7 33.8 29 53.4 17.6 61.7 8.9 284.0 33.8 34.6 7.6 −5.0 −43.2 26.5 3.2 132.7 148.8 38.3 30 55.6 14.9 48.4 13.6 310.9 16.8 29.2 20.7 −6.2 −48.5 27.9 4.0 147.8 –– 30a 55.5 14.5 48.1 13.5 310.2 16.8 29.2 1.1 −6.2 −48.5 26.5 4.7 99.5 21.3 59.8 31 17.7 6.6 11.7 3.5 130.2 4.1 9.6 3.0 −5.6 −35.6 26.9 4.6 124.6 1,276.2 Contam. 31a 55.1 55.1 15.5 28.2 42.7 176.2 77.5 103.6 −5.5 −44.9 31.0 100.0 164.5 1972.0 a 9.4 9.4 6.9 4.3 0.0 43.6 22.6 1.9 −6.3 −48.0 23.5 5.7 110.8 304.0 33.8 a1 17.8 17.8 6.5 11.7 0.0 130.3 4.0 1.7 −5.9 −46.3 23.3 5.4 80.1 110.8 33.8 b 9.6 9.6 6.4 4.2 0.0 43.2 22.2 1.9 −6.0 −47.8 22.4 5.5 304.0 80.1 38.3 c 9.5 7.0 4.2 1.5 43.4 22.2 1.8 2.1 −6.3 −50.0 24.4 5.2 94.0 225.5 40.8 c1 9.5 7.0 4.3 1.5 43.2 22.4 1.9 4.3 −6.3 −50.0 23.4 4.2 180.0 368.6 32.3 d 21.1 8.6 12.4 3.7 74.6 54.7 4.6 2.6 −5.3 −44.7 23.0 6.4 248.0 676.2 Contam. d1 20.8 8.6 12.8 3.7 74.5 54.8 4.6 4.0 −5.5 −40.0 22.3 7.9 254.0 676.2 Contam. e 23.0 8.4 20.3 3.6 81.6 71.5 2.8 0.4 −6.5 −54.0 25.1 6.6 107.0 179.3 43.3 f 58.9 24.0 27.6 10.5 128.5 122.3 68.3 3.1 −5.7 −49.5 24.2 6.5 94.0 365.7 32.8 g 34.0 13.1 16.2 7.9 74.1 69.6 43.1 5.6 −4.3 −40.6 20.9 6.0 147.0 540.8 17.3 Deep groundwater 1 23.8 10.7 16.9 7.8 184.7 4.0 8.6 1.6 −5.5 −44.2 24.6 3.8 92.0 0.0 75.9 2 28.0 13.0 24.0 9.3 219.2 9.8 14.5 1.1 −6.2 −46.6 26.1 5.2 25.5 321.6 35.3 2a 45.2 18.8 31.9 10.2 290.5 20.9 21.8 0.2 −6.3 −46.9 23.5 3.8 90.1 0.0 75.9 3 27.9 13.9 23.9 9.2 217.9 9.8 15.2 1.1 −5.6 −44.8 21.9 2.1 66.9 129.5 – 4 29.0 13.2 24.9 9.5 219.4 10.0 15.5 1.1 −6.1 −46.5 27.6 3.4 31.2 243.0 40.4 4a 55.8 23.8 62.5 10.9 205.4 44.2 24.1 1.1 −6.1 −46.5 26.8 3.0 −68.5 0.0 75.9 5 68.1 26.7 86.3 14.9 295.7 104.6 54.0 1.9 −5.9 −45.5 27.2 4.3 39.3 314.7 35.8 5a 28.8 12.8 23.8 9.3 217.4 8.8 14.5 3.0 −6.2 −45.6 28.3 2.5 48.1 0.0 75.9 6 57.0 24.1 63.1 11.5 206.7 45.2 25.2 3.2 −4.7 −39.9 26.4 2.1 −10.8 292.7 36.8 6a 44.9 19.2 31.9 10.2 289.8 20.7 21.9 0.2 −5.6 −44.6 29.5 1.9 71.9 80.0 49.9 6b 45.2 19.3 32.6 10.5 290.5 21.9 22.4 1.2 −5.6 −44.6 30.0 5.8 61.3 117.9 46.9 6c 43.9 18.9 30.9 9.9 288.4 21.7 21.9 1.2 −5.7 −44.7 24.3 2.3 75.7 186.3 42.9 7 60.8 21.0 73.6 11.2 386.9 31.8 98.1 4.1 −5.9 −40.7 26.7 3.0 −60.4 143.1 45.4 7a 60.6 20.8 72.9 11.1 385.1 30.4 97.9 3.6 −5.9 −40.8 33.3 6.3 −44.1 86.7 49.4 7b 60.1 24.0 33.7 9.9 285.8 21.9 13.8 3.6 −6.0 −40.8 32.2 2.7 14.0 126.6 45.4 7c 45.2 18.8 32.6 10.5 290.5 21.9 22.4 5.3 −6.1 −46.3 25.5 2.7 17.0 169.2 43.8 8 59.9 23.1 32.5 7.4 279.5 20.9 13.4 4.0 −5.5 −44.2 25.6 2.1 96.0 0.0 75.9 9 59.9 22.9 32.6 7.5 275.2 20.8 12.7 1.4 −5.4 −38.3 25.6 2.1 51.2 0.0 75.9 10 60.2 23.2 33.5 8.7 280.9 21.2 13.8 1.3 −6.2 −46.8 28.6 4.1 79.0 405.2 30.3 11 27.5 13.2 18.2 8.4 126.7 40.5 14.0 2.0 −6.1 −46.6 24.0 3.0 100.0 0.0 75.9 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1271 Table 2 (continued) 2+ 2+ + + − − − − 18 2 Sample Ca Mg Na K HCO Cl SO NO δ O δ H Temp DO ORP CFC-12 CFC-12 3 4 3 No. (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (%) (%) (°C) (mg/l) (mV) (pptv) apparent residence time (years) 11a 60.3 24.1 35.0 10.0 286.0 22.3 14.3 0.6 −6.3 −46.9 24.0 2.9 100.0 224.0 41.3 12 37.9 19.7 22.0 10.5 305.2 7.8 9.1 2.8 −6.0 −46.7 27.4 3.1 72.0 –– 12a 38.8 19.9 22.3 11.9 305.5 8.0 9.1 3.0 −4.6 −38.3 27.0 3.1 38.7 –– 12b 39.0 18.7 23.1 11.8 280.7 8.6 9.3 3.0 −4.6 −38.3 29.4 2.0 −32.0 0.0 75.9 12c 38.9 19.9 22.9 12.0 299.9 8.1 9.2 3.0 −5.4 −42.5 27.8 2.3 −60.4 0.0 75.9 13 79.1 34.5 187.1 18.5 580.1 140.5 1.5 3.8 −5.8 −44.7 28.3 2.9 −5.2 0.0 75.9 15 79.3 34.6 188.3 18.6 583.3 141.3 1.6 0.1 −5.5 −44.9 26.1 3.5 −14.0 255.3 39.4 15a 23.8 8.9 78.7 9.1 302.8 43.8 2.7 2.6 −6.8 −44.0 29.5 2.4 31.2 0.0 75.9 17 24.4 9.6 79.5 9.2 304.9 43.8 2.7 2.6 −5.5 −49.0 29.4 2.0 −32.0 46.0 53.8 18 47.3 19.4 111.5 9.2 379.0 123.8 2.8 0.2 −5.1 −45.4 32.2 5.6 −15.2 0.0 75.9 18a 46.5 19.2 110.5 9.1 375.4 121.7 2.7 0.2 −4.5 −42.8 27.9 4.4 −6.0 27.9 57.8 19 27.1 11.5 63.6 9.3 321.6 23.5 0.3 0.3 −6.0 −41.7 23.2 3.3 8.0 156.8 44.3 19b 36.3 20.5 57.1 19.8 612.6 94.4 1.6 1.6 −6.1 −41.0 41.2 2.5 2.0 0.0 75.9 19c 38.0 18.1 50.8 7.8 298.3 60.7 0.6 0.3 −5.5 −47.0 30.3 2.2 5.0 68.1 50.9 20 33.2 25.0 55.6 13.6 375.4 42.6 0.8 2.0 −5.4 −45.8 26.5 4.0 99.5 48.3 53.3 20a 36.1 16.3 49.8 6.5 278.0 44.9 8.3 0.6 −5.8 −48.4 30.4 3.2 45.6 38.6 −60.5 21 39.2 9.3 13.6 5.0 170.4 0.7 1.2 2.1 −6.3 −51.1 26.0 5.3 171.0 100.3 48.3 22 39.9 7.4 6.9 3.0 110.6 2.7 0.5 4.0 −6.3 −50.8 24.4 5.6 124.0 302.1 36.9 22a 39.2 9.2 13.5 5.0 160.8 0.6 1.1 2.0 −6.1 −41.0 29.0 5.3 130.9 120.7 46.9 23 21.5 8.3 10.5 2.3 157.2 2.0 3.2 3.2 −6.2 −51.5 26.7 4.3 147.2 0.0 75.9 24 25.2 14.1 16.8 7.1 233.1 1.3 6.4 0.5 −6.1 −48.8 26.5 3.2 132.7 11.7 63.4 24a 25.2 14.1 16.1 7.1 230.2 1.2 6.3 0.2 −5.4 −45.8 27.9 4.0 159.0 105.7 47.9 25 36.3 14.9 48.2 6.5 280.1 44.1 8.7 0.5 −6.0 −48.9 24.1 5.5 134.6 238.4 40.3 27 42.4 19.9 30.2 5.7 323.4 26.0 2.0 0.3 −4.5 −42.8 27.4 7.0 −30.0 0.0 75.9 28 33.2 13.5 53.1 10.3 308.5 27.0 6.4 6.6 −5.5 −42.9 29.1 3.5 −39.7 0.0 75.9 28a 32.9 13.4 52.8 10.1 304.6 24.6 6.0 5.7 −4.6 −42.9 27.5 2.8 −13.0 0.0 75.9 29 16.2 7.5 162.6 22.6 395.0 40.2 6.2 1.1 −5.6 −43.8 27.7 5.0 −19.6 285.1 37.8 29a 16.2 7.4 162.7 22.6 395.7 40.5 6.4 1.3 −5.6 −43.8 29.3 2.0 0.0 195.0 42.3 30 30.1 15.1 89.8 11.4 324.3 73.8 2.0 7.4 −5.7 −44.0 28.8 4.9 −5.2 269.5 38.8 30a 30.6 11.6 35.3 7.0 295.9 2.0 4.8 0.9 −5.7 −44.0 27.6 3.0 −42.2 0.0 75.9 31 44.4 18.7 31.8 10.2 288.9 20.7 21.7 1.1 −5.9 −42.9 24.5 3.1 150.0 363.8 32.8 31a 28.2 17.9 54.0 10.7 268.4 18.5 9.3 2.4 −5.4 −43.3 28.1 4.7 −5.2 225.0 40.9 32 30.2 15.2 89.9 11.5 324.4 74.2 1.9 7.8 −5.0 −42.9 27.5 3.0 −42.2 98.2 48.3 33 36.2 15.7 47.4 6.2 270.5 40.3 8.3 0.1 −5.8 −48.4 28.3 3.7 105.0 39.1 55.4 33a 36.1 15.5 48.9 6.3 275.9 44.2 8.1 0.4 −5.8 −48.4 30.9 3.7 18.0 234.8 40.4 34 23.3 8.6 75.5 9.1 300.7 42.6 2.6 0.4 −6.0 −42.6 27.8 2.3 −60.4 0.0 46.9 39 24.2 9.6 78.5 8.8 302.7 43.4 2.5 2.5 −6.5 −42.2 26.9 3.2 50.6 0.0 75.9 40 31.2 15.2 97.9 12.4 326.8 75.2 1.8 5.7 −5.3 −40.7 27.5 2.9 −13.0 300.6 36.9 41 26.8 15.1 88.8 11.3 320.2 73.8 1.8 2.4 −6.0 −40.6 24.5 3.3 64.4 0.0 75.8 42 29.1 16.8 95.9 11.6 330.5 74.7 1.8 2.4 −5.5 −42.5 24.5 4.0 −42.2 130.5 45.9 43 38.2 15.2 99.8 11.3 324.3 74.4 1.8 6.6 −5.8 −40.7 27.5 3.9 −38.7 0.0 75.9 44 44.1 18.6 31.9 10.1 289.5 18.9 20.9 1.1 −6.1 −46.5 26.1 3.0 188.0 –– 45 60.8 13.0 73.7 10.9 388.5 32.0 90.8 1.7 −6.2 −45.6 28.5 2.8 −30.3 0.0 75.8 46 24.8 11.1 31.2 8.9 250.8 3.9 5.9 0.3 −6.0 −45.5 28.3 3.2 110.0 0.0 75.9 47 25.1 11.1 31.6 8.9 253.5 4.0 4.0 0.4 −6.5 −45.5 25.0 2.8 124.6 23.2 49.4 set as the deep groundwater system from a combined aquifer the middle aquifer (or UHs 2); layer L6 is composed of tuff- (defined as zone D). The descriptions of zone S are: layer L1 is aceous breccia of the Cibeureum Formation, and forms the made up of volcanic deposits (sandy tuff) on the basin’s lowest aquifer (or UHs 3). At the bottom of these layers is slopes, and is part of the upper Cibeureum Formation; layer basement rock of the Cikapundung Formation, which is older L2 is a clayey sand layer of the upper Kosambi Formation and and harder, and is set as a no-flow boundary. spreads only in the center of this basin; and layer L3 is a silty The Citarum River was adopted as a constant-head bound- clay layer, and is part of the lower Kosambi Formation. ary because there were very little data about the interaction Meanwhile, for zone D: layer L4 is a sandy silt layer in the between river water and groundwater. No-flow boundary con- upper layers of the Cibeureum Formation, and spreads only in ditions were assumed for the bottom and the outer sides of the the central bottom of the basin; layer L5 is a composed of model. The various recharge rates were assigned to the model tuffaceous sandstone of the Cibeureum Formation, and forms grid at the periphery of this basin as recharge area. For the 1272 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 entire model domain, recharge was set at 20–100 mm/year, 1950 representing natural groundwater conditions. with an absorption coefficient that changed according to land- Furthermore, in this study, those parameters were calibrated use change (Nurliana 2009). by comparing the computed and observed groundwater poten- tial, as described later. The aquifer was assumed to be an Hydraulic parameters and their calibration isotropic with fixed vertical and horizontal hydraulic conduc- tivity for each layer, and heterogeneity was represented by an For this study, the groundwater flow model was set up using equivalent homogeneous aquifer with anisotropic hydraulic parameters as presented in Table 4. Hydraulic conductivity conductivity (i.e. K = K > K ). x y z (K) and transmissivity (T) were determined initially by In the calibration process, the parameters were adjusted to best Hutasoit (2009) from pumping test results and had been cali- fit the long-term fluctuations of groundwater potential by compar- ing the computed and observed groundwater potential for the brated with the groundwater potential distribution measured in Fig. 3 Distribution maps of water type for a shallow groundwater and b deep groundwater; and distribution maps of CFC-12 concentration for c shallow groundwater and d deep groundwater plotted on a land-use map (Bakorsortanal 2009) Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1273 Fig. 4 A geological cross section (C′–C, Fig 1)with selected parameters. The position of the redox boundary is shown by a dotted line. The geological cross section adapted from an unpublished report (2002) by the Office of Energy and Mineral Resources - West Java Province and LPPM–ITB (see Table 1)is shown at the top with observed groundwater potentials (dashed lines) for 2015 long-term period 1994–2015 (Fig. 8a), and simultaneously the potential values are from ten observation wells with records of calculated pumping volumes were obtained. The initial parame- groundwater potentials in the deep aquifer (their locations are ters were from a previous study (Hutasoit 2009) that had been presentedinFig. 2b). The relationship between the observed calibrated up to 2016, and the final adjusted parameters were groundwater potentials and the estimated values at the end of each almost the same as the initial ones. The observed groundwater year period is in good agreement, thereby validating the model 1274 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 Fig. 5 CFC-12 concentration along the cross sections (Fig. 1) showing the three depression areas (Fig. 2b). All geological cross sections adopted from the unpublished report (2002) by the Office of Energy and Mineral Resources - West Java Province and LPPM–ITB (see Table 1) with observed groundwater potentials (dashed lines) for 2015 Table 3 Data of C activity in groundwater samples c14 Well No., area C(pmC) a b 2008 2012 Well 1, CMHI area 0.3 0.5 Well 6, RCK area 48.8 64.7 Fig. 6 Relationship between R and the average CFC-12 concentration. Well 8, DHYK area 71.5 81.5 The CFC-12 concentrations are shown for the three observation areas, and R values are from three observation wells which are representative of Data from Wahyudin and Matahelumual (2008) the depression areas. The R value is a rejuvenation ratio determined using Bata from Satrio et al. (2012) C activity between 2008 and 2012, as listed in Table 3. The circle size shows the magnitude of ‘vertical downward flux’ from modeling Areas: Cimahi (CMHI), Rancaekek (RCK), Dayeuhkolot (DHYK) (Fig. 10) Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1275 Fig. 7 a Model grid of the numerical model. The grid comprises 0.5 × 0.5-km cells in surficial distribution; b The vertical distribution represents the subsurface condition along the south to north line (a) (Fig. 8b). The calculated groundwater pumping volumes were - West Java Province, see Table 1. The calculated volumes very different to the official records of volumes—unpublished were up to 14 times higher than the official volumes in report (2004) from the Office of Energy and Mineral Resources recent years, as presented in Fig. 9. Similar anomalies were 1276 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 Table 4 Properties of the Property Value/set up groundwater flow model Grid size 0.5 × 0.5 km Number of grids 130 rows and 130 columns −5 2 Layer structure: K, T Zone S, layer L1: K =4×10 m/s, T =44 m /day −5 2 Zone S, layer L2: K =1×10 m/s, T =30 m /day −7 2 Zone S, layer L3: K =8×10 m/s, T =2 m /day −5 2 Zone D, layer L4: K =1×10 m/s, T =47 m /day −5 2 Zone D, layer L5: K =5×10 m/s, T =75 m /day −5 2 Zone D, layer L6: K =1.2 ×10 m/s, T =50 m /day Computation period 1950–2015 Top boundary Flexible head Bottom boundary No-flow Initial condition Steady state, without groundwater pumping. Natural groundwater flow (1950) Calibration data Groundwater potential observations for 1994–2015 at ten representative observation wells The shallow groundwater system (zone S) consists of three layers (L1, L2, L3) and the deep groundwater system (zone D) also consists of three layers (L4, L5, L6). Hydraulic conductivity (K) has the relation (K = K = K × x y z −1 10 ); T is transmissivity Fig. 8 a The long-term fluctuation of groundwater potentials (GWL = groundwater potentials with the estimated values is in good agreement. groundwater level) between the observed (solid line) and estimated The observation well locations are presented in Fig. 2b (dashed line) values; b The relationship between the observed Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1277 Fig. 9 Comparison of groundwater pumping volume between the volume from the official report (block bar) and the calculated volume from the modeling (blank bar) found in the Jakarta area, with calculated volumes reaching Comparison between observed hydrogeochemical 12 times the official volumes (Kagabu et al. 2013). These tracer and estimated vertical flux anomalies might be caused by unregistered wells (Braadbaart and Braadbaart 1997) and the fact that many In the previous section, the shallow groundwater intrusion of the pumping volumes have not been reported in official caused by groundwater pumping was estimated using the sim- documents. This is one of the biggest problems in ground- ulation model. Figure 6 shows the relationship between R and water management in Indonesia. This might also have oc- CFC-12 concentration, and also the estimated ‘vertical down- curred in other Asian cities where there are subsurface ward flux’ at each depression area. The magnitude of this flux problems; therefore, this finding regarding under-reported is expressed as the diameter of a circle. The biggest flux was at pumping volumes could provide valuable information for the CMHI area where the biggest drawdown occurred, and the improving monitoring and modeling. flux is also clearly shown in the other areas. Figure 6 confirms that the vertical downward flux in each area affects the mag- Estimated groundwater flux from the simulation model nitude of the shallow groundwater intrusion, which is also confirmed by CFC-12 concentrations and R values. Thus, Water budget analyses were conducted to calculate the the modeling confirmed the results obtained from the hydro- vertical downward flux from zones S to D. The change geochemical techniques, i.e. by observed high concentrations in this flux was estimated for each year during 1950– and by estimating the R of Cactivity. 2015. The change in vertical flux is affected by the A similar calculation was applied to the Jakarta area, and it change in groundwater pumping, as shown in Fig. 10. was found that the vertical flux reached approximately 50% Since the 1970s, the vertical flux has increased signifi- (Kagabu et al. 2013). The differences in flux might be caused cantly, suggesting that the shallow groundwater by many factors such as the geologic conditions, the magni- recharged the deeper aquifer. The flux reached approxi- tude of groundwater drawdown, the amount of groundwater mately 15% of the total pumping amount during the pumping, and the number and distribution of deep wells. 2000s, compensating the groundwater pumping in the Bandung basin. In addition, according to Arianto (2010), this vertical flux phenomenon was also indicated Conclusions by pumping tests at some of the deep drilled wells in the Bandung basin with leakage factor ranging between The differences between the shallow and deep groundwater 0.167 and 1.25 m. flow systems in Bandung basin were hydrogeochemically Fig. 10 Calculated groundwater pumping volume (solid line), and the vertical downward flux (dotted line) from shallow groundwater (zone S) to deep groundwater (zone D) below the Bandung basin, from a numerical model for period 1950–2015 1278 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link characterized. The shallow groundwater is generally a Ca- to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. HCO type, with high CFC-12 concentrations; however, a Na-HCO type was found in the center of the basin where flow rates are less. Some of the shallow groundwater had References CFC-12 concentrations that exceeded the maximum atmo- spheric concentration, thus indicating that they were contam- Abidin HZ, Andreas H, Gamal M, Wirakusumah AD, Darmawan D, inated by local CFC sources. In comparison, the deep ground- Deguchi T, Maruyama Y (2008) Land subsidence characteristics water was a Na-HCO type with low CFC-12 concentrations; of Bandung basin, Indonesia, as estimated from GPS and InSAR. in fact, most of the deep groundwater wells had no CFC-12 or J Appl Geodesy 2:167–177 were below the detection limits. Stable isotopes analyses re- Appelo CAJ, Postma D (2005) Ion exchange. In: Appelo CAJ, Postma D (eds) Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution. Balkema, Leiden, vealed that both groundwater systems were recharged from The Netherlands, pp 241–309 the periphery of the basin; however, the deep groundwater Arianto SS (2010) The study of inter aquifer transfer through aquifer showed more progression in terms of geochemical evolution leakage phenomenon in Bandung groundwater basin (in than the shallow groundwater. Indonesian). MSc Thesis, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Significant groundwater drawdown has caused age rejuve- Bandung, Indonesia Bakorsotanal (2009) Land use map, sub Bandung region, scale 1: 50.000. nation processes in all the groundwater depression areas. Agency of Geospatial Information, Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta These processes were identified by evidence of the observed Braadbaart O, Braadbaart F (1997) Policing the urban pumping race: CFC-12 concentration in the deep groundwater, which can be industrial groundwater overexploitation in Indonesia. World an indicator of young age. The rejuvenation ratio R was de- Develop 25(2):199–210 termined using the observed Cactivity at representativeob- Busenberg E, Plummer LN (1992) Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CCl F 3 2 and CCl F ) as hydrologic tracers and age-dating tools: the alluvium 2 2 servation wells between 2008 and 2012 and showed good and terrace system of central Oklahoma. Water Resour Res 28: correlation with the CFC-12 concentrations, increasing as 2257–2283 CFC-12 concentrations rose. This correlation was confirmed Carlson MA, Lohse KA, McIntosh JC, McLain JET (2011) Impacts of by the vertical downward flux obtained from modeling. urbanization on groundwater quality and recharge in a semi-arid alluvial basin. J Hydrol 409(1–2):196–211. https://doi.org/10. Furthermore, this ‘vertical downward flux’ was greater in 1016/j.jhydrol.2011.08.020 the groundwater depression area and in the shallower part of Chapelle FH, McMahon PB, Dubrovsky NM, Fujii RF, Oaksford ET, the deep aquifer, affecting the magnitude of the shallow Vroblesky DA (1995) Deducing the distribution of terminal groundwater intrusion. This increase of flux is caused by ex- electron-accepting processes in hydrologically diverse groundwater cessive groundwater pumping corresponding to industrializa- systems. Water Resour Res 31(2):359–371 Dai Z, Keating E, Gable CW, Levitt D, Heikoop J, Simmons A (2010) tion occurring in the Bandung basin. Since the 1970s, this Stepwise inversion of a groundwater flow model with multi-scale vertical flux has increased significantly and reached approxi- observation data. Hydrogeol J 18:607–624. https://doi.org/10.1007/ mately 15% of the total pumping amount during the 2000s. s10040-009-0543-y 2010 The vertical flux model result confirmed the results of other Dai Z, Keating E, Bacon D, Viswanathan H, Jordan SP, Pawar AR (2014) approaches using hydrogeochemical techniques, i.e. by ob- Probabilistic evaluation of shallow groundwater resources at a hy- pothetical carbon sequestration site. Scientific Reports. https://doi. served high CFC-12 concentrations and by the estimated R 14 org/10.1038/srep04006 from Cactivity. Delinom RM, Suridarma A (2010) Groundwater flow system of Bandung This study clearly reveals the rejuvenation processes in the basin based on hydraulic head, subsurface temperature, and stable Bandung basin by combining multiple hydrogeochemical tech- isotopes (in Indonesian). J Geologic Mining Res 20(1):55–68 niques and numerical modeling. The magnitude of shallow Foster SSD, Chilton PJ (2003) Groundwater: the process and global sig- nificance of aquifer degradation. Philosoph Trans Royal Soc (young) groundwater intrusion into the deeper aquifer is traced London Ser B 358:1957–1972 systematically by hydrogeochemical markers, the estimation of Hosono T, Delinom R, Nakano T, Kagabu M, Shimada J (2011) 34 18 R, and groundwater flux modeling. The groundwater potential is Evolution model of δ Sand δ O in dissolved sulfate in volcanic expected to decline further, and the deeper groundwater is ex- fan aquifers from recharge to coastal zone and through the Jakarta urban area, Indonesia. Sci Total Environ 409:2541–2554 pected to be even more affected by shallow groundwater that is Hutasoit LM (2009) Groundwater condition of Bandung area, with and highly polluted by urban and industrial contaminants. Thus without artificial recharge: numerical simulation results (in there is an urgent need for better monitoring and a reduction Indonesian). Indo J Geosci 4:1777–1188 of the excessive pumping by either securing alternative water Johnston CT, Cook PG, Frape SK, Plummer LN, Busenberg E, Blackport resources or introducing pumping regulations. RJ (1998) Ground water age and nitrate distribution within a glacial aquifer beneath a thick unsaturated zone. Ground Water 36:171–180 Kagabu M, Shimada J, Delinom R, Tsujimura M, Taniguchi M (2011) Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Groundwater flow system under a rapidly urbanizing coastal city as Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http:// determined by hydrogeochemistry. J Asian Earth Sci 40:226–239 creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, Kagabu M, Shimada J, Delinom R, Toshio Nakamura T, Taniguchi M distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give (2013) Groundwater age rejuvenation caused by excessive urban Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1279 pumping in Jakarta area, Indonesia. Hydrolog Processes 27:2591– Taniguchi M, Shimada J, Fukuda Y, Yamano M, Onodera S, Kaneko S, Yoshikoshi A (2009) Anthropogenic effects on the subsurface ther- 2604. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9380 Lindberg RD, Runnells DD (1984) Ground water redox reactions: an mal and groundwater environments in Osaka, Japan and Bangkok, analysis of equilibrium state applied to Eh measurements and geo- Thailand. Sci Total Environ 407:3153–3164 chemical modeling. Science 225:925–927 Taniguchi M, Burnett WC, Ness GD (2008) Integrated research on sub- Nurliana, L (2009) Groundwater recharge study in Citarum upper water- surface environments in Asian urban areas. Sci Total Environ 404: shed (in Indonesian). PhD Thesis, Bandung Institute of Technology 377–392 (ITB), Bandung, Indonesia Taufiq, A (2010) Land subsidence study for Bandung and surrounding Onodera S, Saito M, Sawano M, Hosono T, Taniguchi M, Shimada J, areas (case study area: Dayeuhkolot, Rancaekek and Cimahi) (in Umezawa Y, Lubis RF, Buapeng S, Delinom R (2009) Effects of Indonesian). MSc Thesis, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into Bandung, Indonesia deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta. Sci Total USGS (2010) The Reston Groundwater Dating Laboratory. http://water. Environ 407:3208–3217 usgs.gov/lab/software/air_curve/. Accessed November 2017 Plummer LN, Busenberg E, Drenkard S, Schlosser P, McConnell JB, Umezawa Y, Hosono T, Onodera S, Siringan F, Buapeng S, Delinom R, Michel RL, Ekwurzel B, Weppernig R, McConnell JB, Michel RL Yoshimizu C, Tayasu I, Nagata T, Taniguchi M (2008) The source (1998) Flow of river water into a karstic limestone aquifer-2, dating and mechanisms controlling nitrate and ammonium contaminations the young fraction in groundwater mixtures in the upper Floridan in groundwater at developing Asian-mega cities, metro manila, aquifer near Valdosta, Georgia. Appl Geochem 13:1017–1043 Bangkok and Jakarta. Sci Total Environ 407:3219–3231 Plummer LN, Rupert MG, Busenberg E, Schlosser P (2000) Age of Wahyudin Matahelumual BC (2008) Hydrogeology Research with iso- irrigation water in ground water from the eastern Snake River plain topes and hydro chemical method in Bandung-Soreang groundwater aquifer, south-central Idaho. Ground Water 38:264–283 basin. Directorate of Environmental Geology; Ministry of Energy Plummer LN, Busenberg E, Böhlke JK, Nelms DL, Michel RL, Schlosser and Mineral Resources, Jakarta,Indonesia P (2001) Groundwater residence times in Shenandoah National Wangsaatmaja S, Sutadian AD, Prasetiati MAN (2006) A review of Park, Blue Ridge Mountains, Virginia, USA: a multi-tracer ap- groundwater issues in the Bandung Basin, Indonesia: management proach. Chem Geol 179:93–111 and recommendations. Int Rev Environ Strategies 6(2). https://pub. Priowirjanto, G.H (1985) Untersuchungen zur Hydrogeologie des iges.or.jp/pub/review-groundwater-issues-bandung-basin. Bandung-Beckens und zur Wassergewinnung der Stadt Bandung November Accessed 2017 mit Hilfe eines mathematischen Modells [Investigations on the hy- Wirakusumah AD, Danaryanto H (2004) Groundwater management in drogeology of the Bandung basin and the water production of the Indonesia case study: groundwater conservation in Jakarta, City of Bandung using a mathematical modell]. PhD Thesis, Bandung and Semarang. 41st Coordinating Committee for RWTH-Aachen, Germany Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP), Satrio, Paston S., Leong Chung S, Syafalni S (2012) Groundwater dy- Tsukuba, Japan namic and its interrelationship with river water of Bandung Basin 18 2 14 Wood WW (1981) Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground- using environmental isotopes (δ O, δ H, C) modern applied sci- water samples for selected unstable constituents. US Geol Surv ence. Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol 6, no. 11, Techniques Water Resour Invest, book 1, chap D2 CCSE, Toronto Yamanaka T, Mikita M, Lorphensriand O, Shimada J, Kagabu M, Ikawa Stewart MK, Thomas JT, Norris M, Trompetter V (2004) R, Tsujimura M (2011) Anthropogenic changes in confined ground- Paleogroundwater in the Moutere gravel aquifers near Nelson, water flow system in the Bangkok Basin, Thailand, part II: how New Zealand. Radiocarbon 46:517–529 much water has been renewed? Hydrol Process 25:2734–2741 Sunarwan, B (2014) Hydro-stratigraphy study for volcanic deposit in Bandung-Soreang groundwater basin, West Java (in Indonesian). Yamano M, Goto S, Miyakoshi A, Hamamoto H, Lubis RF, Monyrath V, PhD Thesis, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Bandung, Taniguchi M (2009) Reconstruction of the thermal environment Indonesia. http://digilib.itb.ac.id/gdl.php?mod=browse&op= evolution in urban areas from underground temperature distribution. read&id=jbptitbpp-gdl-bambangsun-19308&q=sunarwan . Sci Total Environ 407:3120–3128 Accessed November 2017 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Hydrogeology Journal Springer Journals

Impact of excessive groundwater pumping on rejuvenation processes in the Bandung basin (Indonesia) as determined by hydrogeochemistry and modeling

Free
17 pages

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/impact-of-excessive-groundwater-pumping-on-rejuvenation-processes-in-iXoMqDVBcV
Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by The Author(s)
Subject
Earth Sciences; Hydrogeology; Hydrology/Water Resources; Geology; Water Quality/Water Pollution; Geophysics/Geodesy; Waste Water Technology / Water Pollution Control / Water Management / Aquatic Pollution
ISSN
1431-2174
eISSN
1435-0157
D.O.I.
10.1007/s10040-017-1696-8
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

In the Bandung basin, Indonesia, excessive groundwater pumping caused by rapid increases in industrialization and population growth has caused subsurface environmental problems, such as excessive groundwater drawdown and land subsidence. In this study, multiple hydrogeochemical techniques and numerical modeling have been applied to evaluate the recharge processes and groundwater age (rejuvenation). Although all the groundwater in the Bandung basin is recharged at the same elevation at the periphery of the basin, the water type and residence time of the shallow and deep groundwater could be clearly differentiated. However, there was significant groundwater drawdown in all the depression areas and there is evidence of groundwater mixing between the shallow and deep groundwater. The groundwater mixing was traced from the high dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC- 12) concentrations in some deep groundwater samples and by estimating the rejuvenation ratio (R) in some representative observation wells. The magnitude of CFC-12 concentration, as an indicator of young groundwater, showed a good correlation with R,determined using C activity in samples taken between 2008 and 2012. These correlations were confirmed with the estimation of vertical downward flux from shallower to deeper aquifers using numerical modeling. Furthermore, the change in vertical flux is affected by the change in groundwater pumping. Since the 1970s, the vertical flux increased significantly and reached approximately 15% of the total pumping amount during the 2000s, as it compensated the groundwater pumping. This study clearly revealed the processes of groundwater impact caused by excessive groundwater pumping using a combination of hydrogeochemical methods and modeling. . . . . Keywords Over-abstraction Groundwater age Groundwater mixing Numerical modeling Indonesia * Ahmad Taufiq Introduction ahmad.taufiq@pu.go.id; ahmadrentcar@gmail.com Groundwater is an essential and valuable water resource in many developing countries, especially in cities where there Graduate School of Science and Technology, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumomoto 860-8555, Japan is pressure on public water supply because of insufficient in- frastructure. In many areas, groundwater can be used easily Faculty of Earth Science and Technology, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia and inexpensively, and it normally has good quality with re- spect to human health and industrial purposes. Population, Research Center for Water Resources, Ministry of Public Work and Housing, Juanda 193, Bandung 40135, Indonesia industrial and economic growth are often significant, with consequent increases in groundwater exploitation to meet de- Priority Organization for Innovation and Excellence, Kumamoto University, 2-39-1 Kurokami, Kumomoto 860-8555, Japan mand. Thus, a sustainable use of groundwater resources is required urgently in many cases, taking account of the region- Graduate School of Fisheries and Environmental Science, Nagasaki University, 1-14 Bunkyo-Machi, Nagasaki 852-8521, Japan al groundwater flow dynamics (Kagabu et al. 2013). Some subsurface environmental problems have been reported that Faculty of Mining and Petroleum Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia are the result of excessive groundwater pumping such as in- creasing underground temperature (Yamano et al. 2009; Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Bandung Institute of Technology, Ganesha 10, Bandung 40132, Indonesia Taniguchi et al. 2009), groundwater drawdown and land 1264 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 subsidence (Foster and Chilton 2003), and groundwater re- hydrogeochemical characteristics, aquifer heterogeneity, and newal (Yamanaka et al. 2011;Kagabu et al. 2013). field-scale parameterizations, and then simulating a ground- In some large Asian cities, groundwater level drawdowns water flow model (Dai et al. 2010, 2014). One of the impacts have been reported (Taniguchi et al. 2008; Yamanaka et al. of excessive groundwater pumping is to cause changes in the 2011; Kagabu et al. 2011, 2013). It is also suggested that the groundwater rejuvenation process. Understanding these degree of groundwater drawdown depends on the development changes is an important task for effective groundwater stage of each city (Taniguchi et al. 2008; Onodera et al. 2009; management because such changes can cause unexpected Kagabu et al. 2011). In Indonesia, significant groundwater problems such as groundwater quality degradation and the drawdown, and consequently land subsidence and even disturbance of regional groundwater flow systems (Kagabu groundwater quality changes, have been reported in cities such et al. 2013). as Jakarta, Bandung, and Semarang (Wirakusumah and This study describes the rejuvenation processes of the Danaryanto 2004; Taniguchi et al. 2008; Umezawa et al. Bandung basin by using multiple hydrogeochemical tech- 2008; Hosono et al. 2011,Kagabuetal. 2011, 2013). niques (stable isotopes, major ions, and CFC-12 analyses) In the Bandung basin, groundwater pumping has been and estimating a rejuvenation ratio (R)for C activity, recorded since the early 1900s and found to be increasing and then testing this with numerical modeling. The objec- (unpublished report, 1991) by Sutrisno, see Table 1). tives are to systematically examine the groundwater flow Since 1970, many textile factories have been established system, to trace the rejuvenation processes, and to reveal in this basin. These factories rely almost entirely on the groundwater fluxes, thus demonstrating how under- groundwater and have caused significant groundwater standing the rejuvenation phenomenon is important for drawdowns. In addition, 60% of the total water demand management of some human activity with respect to of the Bandung basin is supplied by groundwater groundwater resource protection. (Wangsaatmaja et al. 2006). Consequently, land subsi- dence has occurred at a rate of 5–75 cm between 2000 and 2008 (Abidin et al. 2008). According to calculations Study area by Taufiq (2010), the groundwater drawdown has contrib- uted to 30–70% of the land subsidence rate. The Bandung-Soreang groundwater basin, commonly known Recent studies have emphasized the impact of subsurface as the Bandung basin, is located in the center of the western environmental problems, but in this study the focus is on part of Java, an island of Indonesia. This intra-montane basin describing the processes that leading to these impacts. is surrounded by up to 2,400-m-high volcanic rocks of the late Understanding and predicting these processes at basin Tertiary and Quaternary. The Citarum River flows in the cen- scale entails developing and integrating knowledge of ter of the basin, and is the main river. This basin is one of most Table 1 The unpublished reports/papers featured in this report Author/s Year Title Organization (Republic of Indonesia) Geyh MA 1990 Isotopic hydrological study in the Bandung Basin – Indonesia. Directorate of Environmental Geology; Project Report No. 10 Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Iwaco – Waseco, Ministry of 1990 West Java Provincial Water Sources Master Plan for Water Directorate General for Human Public Works Supply, Bandung. Settlements; Directorate of Water Supply; Ministry of Public Works Office of Energy and Mineral 2010 Evaluation and updating of conservation zone in Office of Energy and Mineral Resources - Resources - West Java Bandung-Soreang groundwater basin, Bekasi-Karawang West Java Province Province groundwater basin and Sukabumi groundwater basin Office of Energy and Mineral 2004 Monitoring of groundwater condition in Bandung-Soreang Office of Energy and Mineral Resources - Resources - West Java groundwater basin, Bogor groundwater basin and West Java Province Province Bekasi-Karawang groundwater basin Office of Energy and Mineral 2002 Master plan study for the utilization of groundwater in Office of Energy and Mineral Resources - Resources - West Java Bandung-Soreang groundwater basin West Java Province Province, LPPM–ITB Sutrisno D 1991 Utilization, impact and countermeasures of groundwater Directorate of Environmental Geology; abstraction in Bandung basin Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1265 developed basins in Indonesia. It has an area of 2,300 km A geological map of the Bandung basin has been generated and five administrative areas—three regencies (part of by Hutasoit (2009), and is presented in Fig. 1.The Bandung, West Bandung and Sumedang) and two cities hydrostratigraphy of this basin is classified (older to younger (Bandung and Cimahi). The central part of the basin, order) into the following three formations: Cikapundung mostly comprising urban and industrial areas, is a plain Formation (basement rock), Cibeureum Formation (the main measuring about 40 km east–west and about 30 km north– aquifer), and Kosambi Formation (aquitard). A description of south. The population in Bandung basin is currently more each formation follows: than 7 million people. As regards the regional climate of the Bandung basin, the mean annual temperature is about & The Cikapundung Formation is the oldest rock exposed in 23.7 °C, the annual precipitation is 1,500–2,500 mm, and this basin and consists of conglomerates and compacted the annual potential evapotranspiration is 1,606 mm breccia, tuff, and andesite lava. The estimated age of this (Nurliana 2009). Meanwhile, wet season usually occurs formation is early Pleistocene. The high degree of com- in September–May throughout the region and dry season paction of this formation differentiates it from the occurs during June–August—unpublished report (1991) Cibeureum Formation, and forms the basement of the by Iwaco-Waseco (see Table 1). groundwater basin. Fig. 1 Location map of the sampling points plotted on a geological map of Bandung basin (Hutasoit 2009). Three representative hydrogeological cross sections of the Bandung basin along the A–A′ line, B–B′ line and C–C′ line. The C–C′ line is shown in Figs. 4 and 5 1266 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 & The Cibeureum Formation lies under the Kosambi samples were collected from springs, dug wells, production Formation and is found in the periphery of the basin, as wells, and observation wells. Sampling and field measure- a fan-shaped distribution of volcanic deposits. It is com- ments were carried out following standard procedures posed of partially consolidated breccia and tuff deposits, (Wood 1981). Some in situ tests such as temperature, pH, with some lava intrusions, and is late Pleistocene– dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity (EC), and ox- Holocene age. idation–reduction level (ORP) of the water samples were mea- & The Kosambi Formation is the upper surface layer and is sured in the field with minimal atmospheric contact and by distributed in the center of this basin, as a lake deposit. Its using a portable meter (WM-32EP, TOA DKK Inc). lithology consists of unconsolidated claystone, siltstone, All the water samples were collected after purging the and sandstone of Holocene age. wells and were filtered using 0.2-μm cellulose acetate fil- ters (Advantec) before storing. The samples for analysis of 18 2 + + stable isotopes (δ Oand δ H) and major ions (Na ,K , 2+ 2+ − − − − Ca ,Mg ,Cl ,SO ,HCO ; NO ) were collected in 100- The most recent study of the groundwater flow system 4 3 3 ml polyethylene bottles for analyses at the chemical labo- of the Bandung basin was done by Sunarwan (2014), using ratory of the Center of Geological Resources, Geological descriptions of cuttings, drilling well logs, resistivity logs, Agency of Indonesia. Major cations were analyzed using major ions, and stable isotopes. Hydrostratigrapically, the Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (4100 Bandung basin can be divided into three units—units of MP-AES, Agilent Technologies Inc) and the major anions hydrostratigraphy 1 (UHs 1), UHs 2, and UHs 3. UHs 1 using ion chromatography (DIONEX ICS 1600, Thermo is composed of three layers: sandy tuff, clayey sand and Fisher Scientific Inc). The analytical error for major ions silty clay, as a combined aquitard which contains analyses was typically within 10%. Stable isotopes were shallow groundwater. UHs 2 (composed of two layers: measured relative to VSMOW (Vienna Standard Mean sandy silt and tuffaceous sandstone) and UHs 3 Ocean Water) by using an integrated isotope analyzer (composed of one layer, tuffaceous breccia) are distinct (Picarro L2120, Picarro Inc). The analytical error for the lithologically, but it is not clear if they are hydrologi- stable isotopes analyses was ±0.2% for δ O and ±1.0% for cally separate; therefore, UHs 2 and UHs 3 were δ H. combined as a combined UHs which contains deep Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are useful tools for tracing groundwater as a semi-confined and confined aquifer. and dating groundwater after 1945 (Busenberg and Priowirjanto (1985) and Arianto (2010) also divided Plummer 1992;Plummeretal. 2000, 2001) because the the groundwater into two systems: a shallow and a deep release of CFCs into the atmosphere started after the groundwater flow system. The shallow groundwater is 1940s (USGS 2010). Therefore, CFCs were employed as foundinanaquitard withlocal flow.Thedeep ground- a marker for young groundwater; consequently, if the water is allied in a semi-confined and confined aquifer samples possess some dissolved CFCs, it means a fraction with an intermediate and regional flow. of the water had been recharged since 1940. The samples For the purposes of this study, the authors also divided for CFCs analyses were collected in triplicate and stored the groundwater flow system in the Bandung basin into in glass bottles sealed with metal-lined caps (Busenberg shallow and deep groundwater flow systems. It was con- and Plummer 1992). The CFCs were analyzed using sidered that the shallow groundwater is from a combined closed-system purge-and-trap gas chromatography and aquitard (UHs 1) which can be accessed via dug wells, an electron capture detector (GC-2014, Shimadzu Inc) at which will be defined as zone S (see section ‘Model de- the Hydrology Laboratory of Kumamoto University, scription’). This assumption concurs with all previous Japan. The analytical uncertainty associated with the studies. It was also assumed that the deep groundwater CFC analyses was less than 5%. The values were reported is from a combined UHs and is obtained using drilled only if the concentrations of at least two measurements wells, which will be defined as zone D (see section were within 10% for concentrations higher than 100 ρg/ ‘Model description’). This assumption follows the ap- kg as the detection limit (Johnston et al. 1998). proach of Hutasoit (2009), with the deep groundwater A numerical groundwater flow model was applied to obtained from interconnected multi-aquifers belonging to reveal the fluxes in the rejuvenation processes in the the Cibeureum Formation. Bandung basin. A modular three-dimensional (3D) finite-difference groundwater flow model and structured rectilinear grid operating system was used—the Visual Sampling and methodology MODFLOW Classic v.2011 (Waterloo Hydrogeologic Inc). The model was constructed for a long-term ground- As part of this study, 40 shallow and 65 deep groundwater water flow system, from 1950 to 2015. samples were collected between May and July 2015. The Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1267 Results the boundary. The ORP value was also used to indicate aero- bic conditions. That the deep groundwater changes from aer- Groundwater potential obic to anaerobic was confirmed by the changes from uncon- fined to confined below the Kosambi Formation. Measurement of shallow and deep groundwater levels was The deep groundwater indicates more progression in geo- done by the basin authority: the Office of Energy and chemical evolution than the shallow groundwater. The clearest + 2+ Mineral Resources, West Java Province (see unpublished examples are the enrichment of Na rather of Ca and the report, 2010, in Table 1). The results show that the shallow mNa/Ca ratio (Fig. 5). The increasing mNa/Cl ratio, an indi- groundwater flows correspond with the local topographic pat- cator of strong rock interaction, is also shown clearly. It can be tern (Fig. 2a). Shallow groundwater flows from the periphery seen on the distribution maps that the Ca-HCO type was to the center of the basin, with levels strongly influenced by dominant at the periphery of this basin, and changed to the the season and the amount of rainfall. The shallow groundwa- Na-HCO type after reaching the center of the basin. This ter level showed very little drawdown or significant variations change could be explained by the cation exchange reaction 2+ + (Fig. 2b); however, the deep groundwater potential for 2010 (Ca ⇔ Na ; Appelo and Postma 2005). The cation exchange showed some groundwater depression cones in the textile in- reaction in deep groundwater also occurred in the groundwa- dustry areas such as Cimahi (CMHI), Rancaekek (RCK), and ter flow system of the Osaka basin in Thailand (Yamanaka Dayeuhkolot (DHYK; Fig. 2b). The results for the deep et al. 2011) and the Jakarta basin in Indonesia (Kagabu et al. groundwater potentials in this study (Fig. 2b) clearly show 2011). that the groundwater depressions have become deeper. In the CMHI area, which has the biggest drawdown, groundwater Stable isotopes levels dropped from 620 m relative to sea level (sl) in 2010 to 18 2 610 m sl in 2015. The same phenomenon also occurred in the Stable isotope ratios of oxygen (δ O) and hydrogen (δ H) are RCK and DHYK areas, but with smaller drawdowns. ideal tracers for identifying the source of groundwater. The results presented in Table 2 show that the groundwater sam- Major ions ples were almost all within the same range, but the deep groundwater had a slightly more homogeneous range (−7.4 18 2 Table 2 shows the results of the hydrogeochemical analyses. to −3.8% δ Oand −54 to −34% δ H) than the shallow 18 2 Figure 3a,b shows the distribution maps of water type classi- groundwater (−7.4 to −3.8% δ Oand −54 to −34% δ H). fied on the basis of major ions using a Stiff diagram. The These almost identical ranges of values indicate that the shal- distribution of shallow groundwater generally shows the water low and deep groundwater were recharged at approximately was a Ca-HCO and Na-HCO type only in the center of this the same elevation. These results are in agreement with anal- 3 3 basin, where flows are slower or stagnant. A Ca-Cl type was yses of the groundwater source determined by the only found at the southern side of the basin because of prox- temperature-depth profile that showed the recharge area to imity to a hot spring. In contrast, the distribution map of deep be at the periphery of the basin (Delinom and Suridarma groundwater shows a different dominant water type, the Na- 2010). HCO type, but there were some seemingly random occur- rences of the Ca-HCO type in all the groundwater depression CFC-12 concentration areas. Evaluating the redox processes is an essential tool for un- CFC-11, CFC-12, and CFC-113 concentrations were mea- derstanding geochemical evolution in groundwater systems sured for all the samples, but only the CFC-12 concentration according to Chapelle et al. (1995). Usually the ORP value was used as a marker for young groundwater in this study is used to evaluate the redox potential (Lindberg and Runnells because of its stability in the subsurface environment 1984). Figure 4 shows a geological cross-section with param- (Plummer et al. 1998). As presented in Table 2, the CFC-12 eters in line with the flow path. The south to north cross- concentration in the shallow groundwater exhibited a wide section (C′–C cross-section) is the most representative cross- range (12.2–540.8 pptv). Moreover, some of the shallow section towards the flow path because it crosses the DHYK groundwater exceeded the maximum atmospheric concentra- area where the magnitude of groundwater drawdown is the tion (>546 pptv; USGS 2010). For the samples with CFC-12 smallest. A redox boundary was found in the deep groundwa- concentrations greater than 546 pptv, it was not possible to ter at 14 km along this section, marked by a change in the evaluate the exact residence time of the groundwater because redox level (ORP) of <0 mV, coinciding with a complete the samples were contaminated by local CFC sources. This reaction of oxygen (DO) of 2 mg/l. A change in temperature phenomenon has also been reported in some large cities such was found near the northern limit of the section: increasing as Las Vegas and New York in the USA, and Beijing in China from 25 ± 1 °C at a fairly constant rate to 28 ± 1 °C just after (Carlson et al. 2011). 1268 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1269 Fig. 2 Historical change of groundwater potential map for shallow and groundwater depression areas—for example, in the CHMI deep groundwater in a 2010 and b 2015. There is no significant difference area approximately 50% of deep wells (10, 2, 3, 5, 6c, 4, 6b, in shallow groundwater for the two periods; however, there are three 7c, 7, and 7b) had CFC-12 concentrations of more than 100 groundwater depression areas in deep groundwater (CMHI, RCK, and pptv. The samples from all the other depression areas (RCK DHYK area). The analyses of some representative observation wells (1, 6 and 8) are presented in Table 2 and Fig. 6, and for all observation wells and DHYK) that also possessed CFC-12 concentrations are presented in Fig. 8 presented in Fig. 4. This reveals that shallow, younger ground- water clearly contributes to the rejuvenation of deep ground- Figure 3c,d shows the distribution of CFC-12 concentra- water in the Bandung basin. Furthermore, for each groundwa- tion (pptv) on the land use map. The shallow groundwater ter depression area, the magnitude of groundwater drawdown with a high CFC-12 concentration indicates a modern has an impact on groundwater mixing that will be discussed (young) groundwater age and that it was recharged after the further in a separate study. 1940s. This result is consistent with Tritium ( H) analyses that The rejuvenation ratio (R) was calculated as an indicator of indicated an apparent age of 12.35–58.38 years (3.13–0.23 rejuvenation based on C activity (in pMC; percent of ‘modern TU; Sunarwan 2014). In contrast, the deep groundwater had carbon’) in deep groundwater. At three observation wells, repre- a low CFC-12 concentration, and most of the deep wells had sentative of different depression areas (1, 6, and 8; as presented in no CFC-12 or were below the detection limit. This result Fig. 2b) samples had been taken in 2008 and in 2012, as listed in agrees with C analyses that indicated that the apparent age Table 3. The measured pMC activity exhibited an increasing was 1,291–35,000 years—Wahyudin Matahelumual 2008; tendency implying that the apparent groundwater age decreased Satrio et al. 2012; and an unpublished report (1990) by in 2012. This phenomenon is the so-called ‘rejuvenation’ of Geyh (see Table 1). However, some of the deep groundwater groundwater age (Stewart et al. 2004; Kagabu et al. 2013). To samples from the groundwater depression areas had high discuss rejuvenation based on the observed C activity, R is CFC-12 concentrations, indicating that modern (young) determined as an indicator of rejuvenation (Eq. 1). groundwater might be recharged to the deeper aquifer. R −R m o R ¼  100 ð1Þ Discussion In Eq. (1), R (dimensionless) is a ratio between the difference of C activity (pMC) in two different years to concentration at Groundwater flow system of the Bandung basin the initial year, and R and R (pMC), respectively denote the o m C activity in 2008 (initial year) and 2012 (measured year) This report discusses the groundwater flow system for both the Figure 6 shows that R increases with CFC-12 concentra- shallow and deep groundwater in the Bandung basin based on the tion. The strong relationship is an indication that greater shal- results of all the hydrogeochemical data. According to the results low groundwater intrusion provides higher R values—for ex- of the stable isotope analyses, all the groundwater is recharged at ample, the CMHI area with the largest groundwater draw- the periphery of the basin. After recharge, the groundwater flows down had the highest average CFC-12 concentration (190 are divided into two major systems, i.e. shallow and deep ground- pptv) and the highest R (50%). This relationship will be fur- water flow systems. This subdivision is consistent with the strat- ther investigated by the following numerical modeling. ification of the local geology. Comparing the distribution map of water type with the distribution map of CFC-12 concentrations for shallow groundwater, shows that the Ca-HCO type with high Groundwater flow modeling CFC-12 concentrations occur at the periphery of the basin, while the Na-HCO type with low CFC-12 concentrations occurs in the Model description center of the basin (Fig. 3). In addition, for the deep groundwater, the Na-HCO type water had low or no CFC-12 concentrations, A 3D model of the groundwater flow system in the Bandung which indicates a relatively long residence time. Since there were basin was first accomplished by Hutasoit (2009). The model Ca-HCO types that appear to be randomly distributed in the domain covers an area of approximately 4,225 km . The mod- groundwater depression areas, it is assumed that the subsurface el is divided into a grid of equally spaced 0.5-km cells, with environment has been disturbed. This assumption will be ad- 130 grid lines for both rows and columns, and has 16,900 cells dressed in the following discussion. (Fig. 7a). The vertical extent of the Bandung basin is repre- sented by two groundwater flow systems that denoted into six Rejuvenation processes model layers (Fig. 7b) and the thickness of each layer repre- sents the hydrogeological layer thickness. Layers L1, L2 and Some high CFC-12 concentrations were found in some of the L3 are set as the shallow groundwater system from a com- deep groundwater samples that were collected in all the bined aquitard (defined as zone S). Layer L4, L5 and L6 are 1270 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 Table 2 Results for chemical and isotopes analyses of shallow and deep groundwater 2+ 2+ + + − − − − 18 2 Sample Ca Mg Na K HCO Cl SO NO δ O δ H Temp DO ORP CFC-12 CFC-12 3 4 3 No. (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (%) (%) (°C) (mg/l) (mV) (pptv) apparent residence time (years) Shallow groundwater 1 38.2 38.2 11.1 42.3 0.0 277.4 20.2 9.0 −5.2 −43.0 23.0 4.9 90.0 85.0 39.8 2 38.1 38.1 11.0 42.4 0.0 278.7 20.4 8.7 −5.2 −43.0 23.0 3.7 90.0 488.0 28.3 3 38.9 38.9 12.2 46.8 0.0 227.2 13.5 41.8 −5.3 −43.5 24.4 4.1 95.7 –– 4 51.0 51.0 18.1 24.0 34.3 121.1 44.4 87.2 −6.9 −42.8 24.9 5.8 191.0 630.8 Contam. 5 65.1 65.1 25.5 27.5 42.3 176.4 77.6 104.7 −5.4 −35.0 24.5 6.7 102.0 579.0 Contam. 6 55.1 15.5 28.3 11.7 176.2 77.5 104.9 3.9 −6.3 −44.1 25.0 4.3 124.0 327.3 34.9 6a 62.0 23.1 31.1 6.4 168.4 86.6 43.3 1.4 −5.5 −39.0 24.5 5.2 192.0 9.1 64.8 7 75.5 75.5 9.1 16.7 3.9 276.7 5.8 3.8 −5.3 −44.0 25.1 3.3 85.0 159.8 24.8 9 51.1 18.1 23.9 9.4 121.1 44.1 87.2 10.4 −6.9 −42.8 24.8 5.0 84.0 767.9 Contam. 10 76.6 9.2 17.0 8.2 280.7 6.0 90.1 1.7 −6.2 −46.8 24.5 4.0 68.2 646.7 Contam. 11 52.4 15.5 27.4 10.3 248.1 12.0 49.7 9.0 −5.2 −42.7 23.8 2.9 82.0 192.7 42.3 11a 52.5 15.5 27.1 10.3 247.9 11.0 49.5 9.0 −5.2 −42.7 23.3 1.8 162.0 646.7 Contam. 12 53.8 17.8 61.2 9.0 283.6 33.5 34.3 1.0 −4.9 −41.8 26.1 3.9 130.0 – 13 56.6 18.5 76.1 34.4 371.5 91.1 32.5 4.8 −5.3 −45.0 26.5 2.1 116.0 40.4 54.8 15a 45.2 18.8 31.9 10.2 290.5 20.9 21.8 2.3 –– – – 115.0 692.8 Contam. 16 61.2 19.7 89.4 27.2 423.1 111.3 24.5 5.8 −4.9 −41.5 25.5 4.2 107.0 84.7 49.4 18 55.0 15.3 29.1 11.4 177.0 77.3 104.6 3.9 −5.3 −44.1 23.8 3.5 125.0 1,132.0 Contam. 19 62.4 23.1 30.3 6.5 168.3 86.5 43.3 3.3 −4.5 −29.8 24.9 3.5 90.0 250.3 39.8 20 55.5 14.5 48.1 13.5 310.2 16.8 29.2 1.1 −6.2 −48.5 26.5 3.7 173.0 21.3 59.8 21a 19.6 11.0 60.1 5.8 251.9 52.3 1.8 1.3 −4.9 −41.8 – 6.6 90.0 58.2 52.3 23 58.2 22.8 69.7 16.4 385.8 91.2 18.9 1.7 −3.9 −41.5 24.8 2.5 87.0 56.0 52.5 24 53.9 17.6 61.1 8.9 283.8 33.4 34.5 2.0 −5.5 −48.0 26.0 4.2 174.0 12.2 63.3 26 54.0 17.6 58.1 8.8 283.8 33.5 34.7 1.1 −4.9 −41.8–– – – – 27 61.1 61.1 25.5 37.4 42.2 176.3 77.1 104.2 −5.4 −35.0 24.1 3.6 4.7 579.0 Contam. 28 42.0 16.7 60.2 9.9 176.2 47.2 1.4 1.3 −4.2 −38.4 26.4 1.9 26.4 345.7 33.8 29 53.4 17.6 61.7 8.9 284.0 33.8 34.6 7.6 −5.0 −43.2 26.5 3.2 132.7 148.8 38.3 30 55.6 14.9 48.4 13.6 310.9 16.8 29.2 20.7 −6.2 −48.5 27.9 4.0 147.8 –– 30a 55.5 14.5 48.1 13.5 310.2 16.8 29.2 1.1 −6.2 −48.5 26.5 4.7 99.5 21.3 59.8 31 17.7 6.6 11.7 3.5 130.2 4.1 9.6 3.0 −5.6 −35.6 26.9 4.6 124.6 1,276.2 Contam. 31a 55.1 55.1 15.5 28.2 42.7 176.2 77.5 103.6 −5.5 −44.9 31.0 100.0 164.5 1972.0 a 9.4 9.4 6.9 4.3 0.0 43.6 22.6 1.9 −6.3 −48.0 23.5 5.7 110.8 304.0 33.8 a1 17.8 17.8 6.5 11.7 0.0 130.3 4.0 1.7 −5.9 −46.3 23.3 5.4 80.1 110.8 33.8 b 9.6 9.6 6.4 4.2 0.0 43.2 22.2 1.9 −6.0 −47.8 22.4 5.5 304.0 80.1 38.3 c 9.5 7.0 4.2 1.5 43.4 22.2 1.8 2.1 −6.3 −50.0 24.4 5.2 94.0 225.5 40.8 c1 9.5 7.0 4.3 1.5 43.2 22.4 1.9 4.3 −6.3 −50.0 23.4 4.2 180.0 368.6 32.3 d 21.1 8.6 12.4 3.7 74.6 54.7 4.6 2.6 −5.3 −44.7 23.0 6.4 248.0 676.2 Contam. d1 20.8 8.6 12.8 3.7 74.5 54.8 4.6 4.0 −5.5 −40.0 22.3 7.9 254.0 676.2 Contam. e 23.0 8.4 20.3 3.6 81.6 71.5 2.8 0.4 −6.5 −54.0 25.1 6.6 107.0 179.3 43.3 f 58.9 24.0 27.6 10.5 128.5 122.3 68.3 3.1 −5.7 −49.5 24.2 6.5 94.0 365.7 32.8 g 34.0 13.1 16.2 7.9 74.1 69.6 43.1 5.6 −4.3 −40.6 20.9 6.0 147.0 540.8 17.3 Deep groundwater 1 23.8 10.7 16.9 7.8 184.7 4.0 8.6 1.6 −5.5 −44.2 24.6 3.8 92.0 0.0 75.9 2 28.0 13.0 24.0 9.3 219.2 9.8 14.5 1.1 −6.2 −46.6 26.1 5.2 25.5 321.6 35.3 2a 45.2 18.8 31.9 10.2 290.5 20.9 21.8 0.2 −6.3 −46.9 23.5 3.8 90.1 0.0 75.9 3 27.9 13.9 23.9 9.2 217.9 9.8 15.2 1.1 −5.6 −44.8 21.9 2.1 66.9 129.5 – 4 29.0 13.2 24.9 9.5 219.4 10.0 15.5 1.1 −6.1 −46.5 27.6 3.4 31.2 243.0 40.4 4a 55.8 23.8 62.5 10.9 205.4 44.2 24.1 1.1 −6.1 −46.5 26.8 3.0 −68.5 0.0 75.9 5 68.1 26.7 86.3 14.9 295.7 104.6 54.0 1.9 −5.9 −45.5 27.2 4.3 39.3 314.7 35.8 5a 28.8 12.8 23.8 9.3 217.4 8.8 14.5 3.0 −6.2 −45.6 28.3 2.5 48.1 0.0 75.9 6 57.0 24.1 63.1 11.5 206.7 45.2 25.2 3.2 −4.7 −39.9 26.4 2.1 −10.8 292.7 36.8 6a 44.9 19.2 31.9 10.2 289.8 20.7 21.9 0.2 −5.6 −44.6 29.5 1.9 71.9 80.0 49.9 6b 45.2 19.3 32.6 10.5 290.5 21.9 22.4 1.2 −5.6 −44.6 30.0 5.8 61.3 117.9 46.9 6c 43.9 18.9 30.9 9.9 288.4 21.7 21.9 1.2 −5.7 −44.7 24.3 2.3 75.7 186.3 42.9 7 60.8 21.0 73.6 11.2 386.9 31.8 98.1 4.1 −5.9 −40.7 26.7 3.0 −60.4 143.1 45.4 7a 60.6 20.8 72.9 11.1 385.1 30.4 97.9 3.6 −5.9 −40.8 33.3 6.3 −44.1 86.7 49.4 7b 60.1 24.0 33.7 9.9 285.8 21.9 13.8 3.6 −6.0 −40.8 32.2 2.7 14.0 126.6 45.4 7c 45.2 18.8 32.6 10.5 290.5 21.9 22.4 5.3 −6.1 −46.3 25.5 2.7 17.0 169.2 43.8 8 59.9 23.1 32.5 7.4 279.5 20.9 13.4 4.0 −5.5 −44.2 25.6 2.1 96.0 0.0 75.9 9 59.9 22.9 32.6 7.5 275.2 20.8 12.7 1.4 −5.4 −38.3 25.6 2.1 51.2 0.0 75.9 10 60.2 23.2 33.5 8.7 280.9 21.2 13.8 1.3 −6.2 −46.8 28.6 4.1 79.0 405.2 30.3 11 27.5 13.2 18.2 8.4 126.7 40.5 14.0 2.0 −6.1 −46.6 24.0 3.0 100.0 0.0 75.9 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1271 Table 2 (continued) 2+ 2+ + + − − − − 18 2 Sample Ca Mg Na K HCO Cl SO NO δ O δ H Temp DO ORP CFC-12 CFC-12 3 4 3 No. (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (mg/l) (%) (%) (°C) (mg/l) (mV) (pptv) apparent residence time (years) 11a 60.3 24.1 35.0 10.0 286.0 22.3 14.3 0.6 −6.3 −46.9 24.0 2.9 100.0 224.0 41.3 12 37.9 19.7 22.0 10.5 305.2 7.8 9.1 2.8 −6.0 −46.7 27.4 3.1 72.0 –– 12a 38.8 19.9 22.3 11.9 305.5 8.0 9.1 3.0 −4.6 −38.3 27.0 3.1 38.7 –– 12b 39.0 18.7 23.1 11.8 280.7 8.6 9.3 3.0 −4.6 −38.3 29.4 2.0 −32.0 0.0 75.9 12c 38.9 19.9 22.9 12.0 299.9 8.1 9.2 3.0 −5.4 −42.5 27.8 2.3 −60.4 0.0 75.9 13 79.1 34.5 187.1 18.5 580.1 140.5 1.5 3.8 −5.8 −44.7 28.3 2.9 −5.2 0.0 75.9 15 79.3 34.6 188.3 18.6 583.3 141.3 1.6 0.1 −5.5 −44.9 26.1 3.5 −14.0 255.3 39.4 15a 23.8 8.9 78.7 9.1 302.8 43.8 2.7 2.6 −6.8 −44.0 29.5 2.4 31.2 0.0 75.9 17 24.4 9.6 79.5 9.2 304.9 43.8 2.7 2.6 −5.5 −49.0 29.4 2.0 −32.0 46.0 53.8 18 47.3 19.4 111.5 9.2 379.0 123.8 2.8 0.2 −5.1 −45.4 32.2 5.6 −15.2 0.0 75.9 18a 46.5 19.2 110.5 9.1 375.4 121.7 2.7 0.2 −4.5 −42.8 27.9 4.4 −6.0 27.9 57.8 19 27.1 11.5 63.6 9.3 321.6 23.5 0.3 0.3 −6.0 −41.7 23.2 3.3 8.0 156.8 44.3 19b 36.3 20.5 57.1 19.8 612.6 94.4 1.6 1.6 −6.1 −41.0 41.2 2.5 2.0 0.0 75.9 19c 38.0 18.1 50.8 7.8 298.3 60.7 0.6 0.3 −5.5 −47.0 30.3 2.2 5.0 68.1 50.9 20 33.2 25.0 55.6 13.6 375.4 42.6 0.8 2.0 −5.4 −45.8 26.5 4.0 99.5 48.3 53.3 20a 36.1 16.3 49.8 6.5 278.0 44.9 8.3 0.6 −5.8 −48.4 30.4 3.2 45.6 38.6 −60.5 21 39.2 9.3 13.6 5.0 170.4 0.7 1.2 2.1 −6.3 −51.1 26.0 5.3 171.0 100.3 48.3 22 39.9 7.4 6.9 3.0 110.6 2.7 0.5 4.0 −6.3 −50.8 24.4 5.6 124.0 302.1 36.9 22a 39.2 9.2 13.5 5.0 160.8 0.6 1.1 2.0 −6.1 −41.0 29.0 5.3 130.9 120.7 46.9 23 21.5 8.3 10.5 2.3 157.2 2.0 3.2 3.2 −6.2 −51.5 26.7 4.3 147.2 0.0 75.9 24 25.2 14.1 16.8 7.1 233.1 1.3 6.4 0.5 −6.1 −48.8 26.5 3.2 132.7 11.7 63.4 24a 25.2 14.1 16.1 7.1 230.2 1.2 6.3 0.2 −5.4 −45.8 27.9 4.0 159.0 105.7 47.9 25 36.3 14.9 48.2 6.5 280.1 44.1 8.7 0.5 −6.0 −48.9 24.1 5.5 134.6 238.4 40.3 27 42.4 19.9 30.2 5.7 323.4 26.0 2.0 0.3 −4.5 −42.8 27.4 7.0 −30.0 0.0 75.9 28 33.2 13.5 53.1 10.3 308.5 27.0 6.4 6.6 −5.5 −42.9 29.1 3.5 −39.7 0.0 75.9 28a 32.9 13.4 52.8 10.1 304.6 24.6 6.0 5.7 −4.6 −42.9 27.5 2.8 −13.0 0.0 75.9 29 16.2 7.5 162.6 22.6 395.0 40.2 6.2 1.1 −5.6 −43.8 27.7 5.0 −19.6 285.1 37.8 29a 16.2 7.4 162.7 22.6 395.7 40.5 6.4 1.3 −5.6 −43.8 29.3 2.0 0.0 195.0 42.3 30 30.1 15.1 89.8 11.4 324.3 73.8 2.0 7.4 −5.7 −44.0 28.8 4.9 −5.2 269.5 38.8 30a 30.6 11.6 35.3 7.0 295.9 2.0 4.8 0.9 −5.7 −44.0 27.6 3.0 −42.2 0.0 75.9 31 44.4 18.7 31.8 10.2 288.9 20.7 21.7 1.1 −5.9 −42.9 24.5 3.1 150.0 363.8 32.8 31a 28.2 17.9 54.0 10.7 268.4 18.5 9.3 2.4 −5.4 −43.3 28.1 4.7 −5.2 225.0 40.9 32 30.2 15.2 89.9 11.5 324.4 74.2 1.9 7.8 −5.0 −42.9 27.5 3.0 −42.2 98.2 48.3 33 36.2 15.7 47.4 6.2 270.5 40.3 8.3 0.1 −5.8 −48.4 28.3 3.7 105.0 39.1 55.4 33a 36.1 15.5 48.9 6.3 275.9 44.2 8.1 0.4 −5.8 −48.4 30.9 3.7 18.0 234.8 40.4 34 23.3 8.6 75.5 9.1 300.7 42.6 2.6 0.4 −6.0 −42.6 27.8 2.3 −60.4 0.0 46.9 39 24.2 9.6 78.5 8.8 302.7 43.4 2.5 2.5 −6.5 −42.2 26.9 3.2 50.6 0.0 75.9 40 31.2 15.2 97.9 12.4 326.8 75.2 1.8 5.7 −5.3 −40.7 27.5 2.9 −13.0 300.6 36.9 41 26.8 15.1 88.8 11.3 320.2 73.8 1.8 2.4 −6.0 −40.6 24.5 3.3 64.4 0.0 75.8 42 29.1 16.8 95.9 11.6 330.5 74.7 1.8 2.4 −5.5 −42.5 24.5 4.0 −42.2 130.5 45.9 43 38.2 15.2 99.8 11.3 324.3 74.4 1.8 6.6 −5.8 −40.7 27.5 3.9 −38.7 0.0 75.9 44 44.1 18.6 31.9 10.1 289.5 18.9 20.9 1.1 −6.1 −46.5 26.1 3.0 188.0 –– 45 60.8 13.0 73.7 10.9 388.5 32.0 90.8 1.7 −6.2 −45.6 28.5 2.8 −30.3 0.0 75.8 46 24.8 11.1 31.2 8.9 250.8 3.9 5.9 0.3 −6.0 −45.5 28.3 3.2 110.0 0.0 75.9 47 25.1 11.1 31.6 8.9 253.5 4.0 4.0 0.4 −6.5 −45.5 25.0 2.8 124.6 23.2 49.4 set as the deep groundwater system from a combined aquifer the middle aquifer (or UHs 2); layer L6 is composed of tuff- (defined as zone D). The descriptions of zone S are: layer L1 is aceous breccia of the Cibeureum Formation, and forms the made up of volcanic deposits (sandy tuff) on the basin’s lowest aquifer (or UHs 3). At the bottom of these layers is slopes, and is part of the upper Cibeureum Formation; layer basement rock of the Cikapundung Formation, which is older L2 is a clayey sand layer of the upper Kosambi Formation and and harder, and is set as a no-flow boundary. spreads only in the center of this basin; and layer L3 is a silty The Citarum River was adopted as a constant-head bound- clay layer, and is part of the lower Kosambi Formation. ary because there were very little data about the interaction Meanwhile, for zone D: layer L4 is a sandy silt layer in the between river water and groundwater. No-flow boundary con- upper layers of the Cibeureum Formation, and spreads only in ditions were assumed for the bottom and the outer sides of the the central bottom of the basin; layer L5 is a composed of model. The various recharge rates were assigned to the model tuffaceous sandstone of the Cibeureum Formation, and forms grid at the periphery of this basin as recharge area. For the 1272 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 entire model domain, recharge was set at 20–100 mm/year, 1950 representing natural groundwater conditions. with an absorption coefficient that changed according to land- Furthermore, in this study, those parameters were calibrated use change (Nurliana 2009). by comparing the computed and observed groundwater poten- tial, as described later. The aquifer was assumed to be an Hydraulic parameters and their calibration isotropic with fixed vertical and horizontal hydraulic conduc- tivity for each layer, and heterogeneity was represented by an For this study, the groundwater flow model was set up using equivalent homogeneous aquifer with anisotropic hydraulic parameters as presented in Table 4. Hydraulic conductivity conductivity (i.e. K = K > K ). x y z (K) and transmissivity (T) were determined initially by In the calibration process, the parameters were adjusted to best Hutasoit (2009) from pumping test results and had been cali- fit the long-term fluctuations of groundwater potential by compar- ing the computed and observed groundwater potential for the brated with the groundwater potential distribution measured in Fig. 3 Distribution maps of water type for a shallow groundwater and b deep groundwater; and distribution maps of CFC-12 concentration for c shallow groundwater and d deep groundwater plotted on a land-use map (Bakorsortanal 2009) Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1273 Fig. 4 A geological cross section (C′–C, Fig 1)with selected parameters. The position of the redox boundary is shown by a dotted line. The geological cross section adapted from an unpublished report (2002) by the Office of Energy and Mineral Resources - West Java Province and LPPM–ITB (see Table 1)is shown at the top with observed groundwater potentials (dashed lines) for 2015 long-term period 1994–2015 (Fig. 8a), and simultaneously the potential values are from ten observation wells with records of calculated pumping volumes were obtained. The initial parame- groundwater potentials in the deep aquifer (their locations are ters were from a previous study (Hutasoit 2009) that had been presentedinFig. 2b). The relationship between the observed calibrated up to 2016, and the final adjusted parameters were groundwater potentials and the estimated values at the end of each almost the same as the initial ones. The observed groundwater year period is in good agreement, thereby validating the model 1274 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 Fig. 5 CFC-12 concentration along the cross sections (Fig. 1) showing the three depression areas (Fig. 2b). All geological cross sections adopted from the unpublished report (2002) by the Office of Energy and Mineral Resources - West Java Province and LPPM–ITB (see Table 1) with observed groundwater potentials (dashed lines) for 2015 Table 3 Data of C activity in groundwater samples c14 Well No., area C(pmC) a b 2008 2012 Well 1, CMHI area 0.3 0.5 Well 6, RCK area 48.8 64.7 Fig. 6 Relationship between R and the average CFC-12 concentration. Well 8, DHYK area 71.5 81.5 The CFC-12 concentrations are shown for the three observation areas, and R values are from three observation wells which are representative of Data from Wahyudin and Matahelumual (2008) the depression areas. The R value is a rejuvenation ratio determined using Bata from Satrio et al. (2012) C activity between 2008 and 2012, as listed in Table 3. The circle size shows the magnitude of ‘vertical downward flux’ from modeling Areas: Cimahi (CMHI), Rancaekek (RCK), Dayeuhkolot (DHYK) (Fig. 10) Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1275 Fig. 7 a Model grid of the numerical model. The grid comprises 0.5 × 0.5-km cells in surficial distribution; b The vertical distribution represents the subsurface condition along the south to north line (a) (Fig. 8b). The calculated groundwater pumping volumes were - West Java Province, see Table 1. The calculated volumes very different to the official records of volumes—unpublished were up to 14 times higher than the official volumes in report (2004) from the Office of Energy and Mineral Resources recent years, as presented in Fig. 9. Similar anomalies were 1276 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 Table 4 Properties of the Property Value/set up groundwater flow model Grid size 0.5 × 0.5 km Number of grids 130 rows and 130 columns −5 2 Layer structure: K, T Zone S, layer L1: K =4×10 m/s, T =44 m /day −5 2 Zone S, layer L2: K =1×10 m/s, T =30 m /day −7 2 Zone S, layer L3: K =8×10 m/s, T =2 m /day −5 2 Zone D, layer L4: K =1×10 m/s, T =47 m /day −5 2 Zone D, layer L5: K =5×10 m/s, T =75 m /day −5 2 Zone D, layer L6: K =1.2 ×10 m/s, T =50 m /day Computation period 1950–2015 Top boundary Flexible head Bottom boundary No-flow Initial condition Steady state, without groundwater pumping. Natural groundwater flow (1950) Calibration data Groundwater potential observations for 1994–2015 at ten representative observation wells The shallow groundwater system (zone S) consists of three layers (L1, L2, L3) and the deep groundwater system (zone D) also consists of three layers (L4, L5, L6). Hydraulic conductivity (K) has the relation (K = K = K × x y z −1 10 ); T is transmissivity Fig. 8 a The long-term fluctuation of groundwater potentials (GWL = groundwater potentials with the estimated values is in good agreement. groundwater level) between the observed (solid line) and estimated The observation well locations are presented in Fig. 2b (dashed line) values; b The relationship between the observed Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1277 Fig. 9 Comparison of groundwater pumping volume between the volume from the official report (block bar) and the calculated volume from the modeling (blank bar) found in the Jakarta area, with calculated volumes reaching Comparison between observed hydrogeochemical 12 times the official volumes (Kagabu et al. 2013). These tracer and estimated vertical flux anomalies might be caused by unregistered wells (Braadbaart and Braadbaart 1997) and the fact that many In the previous section, the shallow groundwater intrusion of the pumping volumes have not been reported in official caused by groundwater pumping was estimated using the sim- documents. This is one of the biggest problems in ground- ulation model. Figure 6 shows the relationship between R and water management in Indonesia. This might also have oc- CFC-12 concentration, and also the estimated ‘vertical down- curred in other Asian cities where there are subsurface ward flux’ at each depression area. The magnitude of this flux problems; therefore, this finding regarding under-reported is expressed as the diameter of a circle. The biggest flux was at pumping volumes could provide valuable information for the CMHI area where the biggest drawdown occurred, and the improving monitoring and modeling. flux is also clearly shown in the other areas. Figure 6 confirms that the vertical downward flux in each area affects the mag- Estimated groundwater flux from the simulation model nitude of the shallow groundwater intrusion, which is also confirmed by CFC-12 concentrations and R values. Thus, Water budget analyses were conducted to calculate the the modeling confirmed the results obtained from the hydro- vertical downward flux from zones S to D. The change geochemical techniques, i.e. by observed high concentrations in this flux was estimated for each year during 1950– and by estimating the R of Cactivity. 2015. The change in vertical flux is affected by the A similar calculation was applied to the Jakarta area, and it change in groundwater pumping, as shown in Fig. 10. was found that the vertical flux reached approximately 50% Since the 1970s, the vertical flux has increased signifi- (Kagabu et al. 2013). The differences in flux might be caused cantly, suggesting that the shallow groundwater by many factors such as the geologic conditions, the magni- recharged the deeper aquifer. The flux reached approxi- tude of groundwater drawdown, the amount of groundwater mately 15% of the total pumping amount during the pumping, and the number and distribution of deep wells. 2000s, compensating the groundwater pumping in the Bandung basin. In addition, according to Arianto (2010), this vertical flux phenomenon was also indicated Conclusions by pumping tests at some of the deep drilled wells in the Bandung basin with leakage factor ranging between The differences between the shallow and deep groundwater 0.167 and 1.25 m. flow systems in Bandung basin were hydrogeochemically Fig. 10 Calculated groundwater pumping volume (solid line), and the vertical downward flux (dotted line) from shallow groundwater (zone S) to deep groundwater (zone D) below the Bandung basin, from a numerical model for period 1950–2015 1278 Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link characterized. The shallow groundwater is generally a Ca- to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. HCO type, with high CFC-12 concentrations; however, a Na-HCO type was found in the center of the basin where flow rates are less. Some of the shallow groundwater had References CFC-12 concentrations that exceeded the maximum atmo- spheric concentration, thus indicating that they were contam- Abidin HZ, Andreas H, Gamal M, Wirakusumah AD, Darmawan D, inated by local CFC sources. In comparison, the deep ground- Deguchi T, Maruyama Y (2008) Land subsidence characteristics water was a Na-HCO type with low CFC-12 concentrations; of Bandung basin, Indonesia, as estimated from GPS and InSAR. in fact, most of the deep groundwater wells had no CFC-12 or J Appl Geodesy 2:167–177 were below the detection limits. Stable isotopes analyses re- Appelo CAJ, Postma D (2005) Ion exchange. In: Appelo CAJ, Postma D (eds) Geochemistry, groundwater and pollution. Balkema, Leiden, vealed that both groundwater systems were recharged from The Netherlands, pp 241–309 the periphery of the basin; however, the deep groundwater Arianto SS (2010) The study of inter aquifer transfer through aquifer showed more progression in terms of geochemical evolution leakage phenomenon in Bandung groundwater basin (in than the shallow groundwater. Indonesian). MSc Thesis, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Significant groundwater drawdown has caused age rejuve- Bandung, Indonesia Bakorsotanal (2009) Land use map, sub Bandung region, scale 1: 50.000. nation processes in all the groundwater depression areas. Agency of Geospatial Information, Republic of Indonesia, Jakarta These processes were identified by evidence of the observed Braadbaart O, Braadbaart F (1997) Policing the urban pumping race: CFC-12 concentration in the deep groundwater, which can be industrial groundwater overexploitation in Indonesia. World an indicator of young age. The rejuvenation ratio R was de- Develop 25(2):199–210 termined using the observed Cactivity at representativeob- Busenberg E, Plummer LN (1992) Use of chlorofluorocarbons (CCl F 3 2 and CCl F ) as hydrologic tracers and age-dating tools: the alluvium 2 2 servation wells between 2008 and 2012 and showed good and terrace system of central Oklahoma. Water Resour Res 28: correlation with the CFC-12 concentrations, increasing as 2257–2283 CFC-12 concentrations rose. This correlation was confirmed Carlson MA, Lohse KA, McIntosh JC, McLain JET (2011) Impacts of by the vertical downward flux obtained from modeling. urbanization on groundwater quality and recharge in a semi-arid alluvial basin. J Hydrol 409(1–2):196–211. https://doi.org/10. Furthermore, this ‘vertical downward flux’ was greater in 1016/j.jhydrol.2011.08.020 the groundwater depression area and in the shallower part of Chapelle FH, McMahon PB, Dubrovsky NM, Fujii RF, Oaksford ET, the deep aquifer, affecting the magnitude of the shallow Vroblesky DA (1995) Deducing the distribution of terminal groundwater intrusion. This increase of flux is caused by ex- electron-accepting processes in hydrologically diverse groundwater cessive groundwater pumping corresponding to industrializa- systems. Water Resour Res 31(2):359–371 Dai Z, Keating E, Gable CW, Levitt D, Heikoop J, Simmons A (2010) tion occurring in the Bandung basin. Since the 1970s, this Stepwise inversion of a groundwater flow model with multi-scale vertical flux has increased significantly and reached approxi- observation data. Hydrogeol J 18:607–624. https://doi.org/10.1007/ mately 15% of the total pumping amount during the 2000s. s10040-009-0543-y 2010 The vertical flux model result confirmed the results of other Dai Z, Keating E, Bacon D, Viswanathan H, Jordan SP, Pawar AR (2014) approaches using hydrogeochemical techniques, i.e. by ob- Probabilistic evaluation of shallow groundwater resources at a hy- pothetical carbon sequestration site. Scientific Reports. https://doi. served high CFC-12 concentrations and by the estimated R 14 org/10.1038/srep04006 from Cactivity. Delinom RM, Suridarma A (2010) Groundwater flow system of Bandung This study clearly reveals the rejuvenation processes in the basin based on hydraulic head, subsurface temperature, and stable Bandung basin by combining multiple hydrogeochemical tech- isotopes (in Indonesian). J Geologic Mining Res 20(1):55–68 niques and numerical modeling. The magnitude of shallow Foster SSD, Chilton PJ (2003) Groundwater: the process and global sig- nificance of aquifer degradation. Philosoph Trans Royal Soc (young) groundwater intrusion into the deeper aquifer is traced London Ser B 358:1957–1972 systematically by hydrogeochemical markers, the estimation of Hosono T, Delinom R, Nakano T, Kagabu M, Shimada J (2011) 34 18 R, and groundwater flux modeling. The groundwater potential is Evolution model of δ Sand δ O in dissolved sulfate in volcanic expected to decline further, and the deeper groundwater is ex- fan aquifers from recharge to coastal zone and through the Jakarta urban area, Indonesia. Sci Total Environ 409:2541–2554 pected to be even more affected by shallow groundwater that is Hutasoit LM (2009) Groundwater condition of Bandung area, with and highly polluted by urban and industrial contaminants. Thus without artificial recharge: numerical simulation results (in there is an urgent need for better monitoring and a reduction Indonesian). Indo J Geosci 4:1777–1188 of the excessive pumping by either securing alternative water Johnston CT, Cook PG, Frape SK, Plummer LN, Busenberg E, Blackport resources or introducing pumping regulations. RJ (1998) Ground water age and nitrate distribution within a glacial aquifer beneath a thick unsaturated zone. Ground Water 36:171–180 Kagabu M, Shimada J, Delinom R, Tsujimura M, Taniguchi M (2011) Open Access This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Groundwater flow system under a rapidly urbanizing coastal city as Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http:// determined by hydrogeochemistry. J Asian Earth Sci 40:226–239 creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, Kagabu M, Shimada J, Delinom R, Toshio Nakamura T, Taniguchi M distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give (2013) Groundwater age rejuvenation caused by excessive urban Hydrogeol J (2018) 26:1263–1279 1279 pumping in Jakarta area, Indonesia. Hydrolog Processes 27:2591– Taniguchi M, Shimada J, Fukuda Y, Yamano M, Onodera S, Kaneko S, Yoshikoshi A (2009) Anthropogenic effects on the subsurface ther- 2604. https://doi.org/10.1002/hyp.9380 Lindberg RD, Runnells DD (1984) Ground water redox reactions: an mal and groundwater environments in Osaka, Japan and Bangkok, analysis of equilibrium state applied to Eh measurements and geo- Thailand. Sci Total Environ 407:3153–3164 chemical modeling. Science 225:925–927 Taniguchi M, Burnett WC, Ness GD (2008) Integrated research on sub- Nurliana, L (2009) Groundwater recharge study in Citarum upper water- surface environments in Asian urban areas. Sci Total Environ 404: shed (in Indonesian). PhD Thesis, Bandung Institute of Technology 377–392 (ITB), Bandung, Indonesia Taufiq, A (2010) Land subsidence study for Bandung and surrounding Onodera S, Saito M, Sawano M, Hosono T, Taniguchi M, Shimada J, areas (case study area: Dayeuhkolot, Rancaekek and Cimahi) (in Umezawa Y, Lubis RF, Buapeng S, Delinom R (2009) Effects of Indonesian). MSc Thesis, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), intensive urbanization on the intrusion of shallow groundwater into Bandung, Indonesia deep groundwater: examples from Bangkok and Jakarta. Sci Total USGS (2010) The Reston Groundwater Dating Laboratory. http://water. Environ 407:3208–3217 usgs.gov/lab/software/air_curve/. Accessed November 2017 Plummer LN, Busenberg E, Drenkard S, Schlosser P, McConnell JB, Umezawa Y, Hosono T, Onodera S, Siringan F, Buapeng S, Delinom R, Michel RL, Ekwurzel B, Weppernig R, McConnell JB, Michel RL Yoshimizu C, Tayasu I, Nagata T, Taniguchi M (2008) The source (1998) Flow of river water into a karstic limestone aquifer-2, dating and mechanisms controlling nitrate and ammonium contaminations the young fraction in groundwater mixtures in the upper Floridan in groundwater at developing Asian-mega cities, metro manila, aquifer near Valdosta, Georgia. Appl Geochem 13:1017–1043 Bangkok and Jakarta. Sci Total Environ 407:3219–3231 Plummer LN, Rupert MG, Busenberg E, Schlosser P (2000) Age of Wahyudin Matahelumual BC (2008) Hydrogeology Research with iso- irrigation water in ground water from the eastern Snake River plain topes and hydro chemical method in Bandung-Soreang groundwater aquifer, south-central Idaho. Ground Water 38:264–283 basin. Directorate of Environmental Geology; Ministry of Energy Plummer LN, Busenberg E, Böhlke JK, Nelms DL, Michel RL, Schlosser and Mineral Resources, Jakarta,Indonesia P (2001) Groundwater residence times in Shenandoah National Wangsaatmaja S, Sutadian AD, Prasetiati MAN (2006) A review of Park, Blue Ridge Mountains, Virginia, USA: a multi-tracer ap- groundwater issues in the Bandung Basin, Indonesia: management proach. Chem Geol 179:93–111 and recommendations. Int Rev Environ Strategies 6(2). https://pub. Priowirjanto, G.H (1985) Untersuchungen zur Hydrogeologie des iges.or.jp/pub/review-groundwater-issues-bandung-basin. Bandung-Beckens und zur Wassergewinnung der Stadt Bandung November Accessed 2017 mit Hilfe eines mathematischen Modells [Investigations on the hy- Wirakusumah AD, Danaryanto H (2004) Groundwater management in drogeology of the Bandung basin and the water production of the Indonesia case study: groundwater conservation in Jakarta, City of Bandung using a mathematical modell]. PhD Thesis, Bandung and Semarang. 41st Coordinating Committee for RWTH-Aachen, Germany Geoscience Programmes in East and Southeast Asia (CCOP), Satrio, Paston S., Leong Chung S, Syafalni S (2012) Groundwater dy- Tsukuba, Japan namic and its interrelationship with river water of Bandung Basin 18 2 14 Wood WW (1981) Guidelines for collection and field analysis of ground- using environmental isotopes (δ O, δ H, C) modern applied sci- water samples for selected unstable constituents. US Geol Surv ence. Canadian Center of Science and Education, vol 6, no. 11, Techniques Water Resour Invest, book 1, chap D2 CCSE, Toronto Yamanaka T, Mikita M, Lorphensriand O, Shimada J, Kagabu M, Ikawa Stewart MK, Thomas JT, Norris M, Trompetter V (2004) R, Tsujimura M (2011) Anthropogenic changes in confined ground- Paleogroundwater in the Moutere gravel aquifers near Nelson, water flow system in the Bangkok Basin, Thailand, part II: how New Zealand. Radiocarbon 46:517–529 much water has been renewed? Hydrol Process 25:2734–2741 Sunarwan, B (2014) Hydro-stratigraphy study for volcanic deposit in Bandung-Soreang groundwater basin, West Java (in Indonesian). Yamano M, Goto S, Miyakoshi A, Hamamoto H, Lubis RF, Monyrath V, PhD Thesis, Bandung Institute of Technology (ITB), Bandung, Taniguchi M (2009) Reconstruction of the thermal environment Indonesia. http://digilib.itb.ac.id/gdl.php?mod=browse&op= evolution in urban areas from underground temperature distribution. read&id=jbptitbpp-gdl-bambangsun-19308&q=sunarwan . Sci Total Environ 407:3120–3128 Accessed November 2017

Journal

Hydrogeology JournalSpringer Journals

Published: Dec 14, 2017

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off