ISSN 10674136, Russian Journal of Ecology, 2015, Vol. 46, No. 3, pp. 289–291. © Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2015.
The Silver Pheasant
found in forests and mountains of South Asia, females
smaller than male, polygamous, live in small flocks of
one male (peacock) and 3–5 females (peahens) and
remain close together during breeding season (Grim
mett et al., 1999). The peacocks usually have 2–3 pea
hens during breeding season in its heram (Roberts,
1991). Different mating ratios play a crucial role in
achieving optimal egg number, fertility and hatchabil
ity by a flock (Altan and Oguz, 1993). The mainte
nance of genetic variations in personality traits can be
efficiently explained by sex ratio dynamics, therefore a
change in these ratios leave an impact on egg fertiliza
tion and hatching in a flock (Giudice, 2012).
The malefemale ratio in a population is also sig
nificant in determining the bird behavior. Very large or
small number of males in a flock seemed responsible
for infertility and the feature varies from species to
species (Hazary et al., 2001; Lambrechts et al., 2004;
Griskevicius et al., 2012).
The pheasants are being raised at captive breeding
sites by fancies and commercial farmers. The hunting
of pheasants is banned under the Punjab Wildlife (Pro
tection, Conservation and Management) Act1974.
The captive breeding program started by the Punjab
Wildlife Department a few years ago. The main pur
pose of present proposal is to provide a research plat
The article is published in the original.
form to researchers for understanding the biology of
faunal species in captivity and also to provide impor
tant information regarding the conservation of a spe
cies. However, the scientific information about the
competent mating ratio in breeding flocks of such
avian species is scarce and the work was done to find
out the best mating ratio for more egg production, egg
weight, fertility %, hatching% and courtship behavior
of this species.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
The study was conducted on 54 silver pheasants
(18 at each station), 12 males and 42 females for a
period of 16 weeks. Three stations include Zoological
garden, Bahawalpur; Wildlife park at Bahawalnagar
and Lal Sohanra National Park, Bahawalpur. The
male birds 4–5 kg and female 3–4 kg weight, approx
imately 5 years of age were selected for study. The
pheasants were divided into four groups at each station
with following (malefemale) ratios: GroupA (1:2),
GroupB (1:3), GroupC (1:4) and GroupD (1:5).
Initially the birds were acclimatized for a period of one
week and the data was collected twice a week for a
period of sixteen weeks. Three localities were taken as
three replicates using completely randomized design.
The birds were fed with formulated diet 200g/day per
bird as devised by Islam et al., (2002) twice in a day
with water ad libitum. Vaccination and medication was
done during the experimental period according to the
Impact of Different Mating Sex Ratios on Reproductive Efficiency
of Silver Pheasant
, Tahira Ruby
, Aleem Ahmed Khan
, Muhammad Rafay
and Muhammad Abdullah
Department of Life Sciences, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100 Pakistan
Institute of Pure and Applied Biology, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan, 60800 Pakistan
Department of Forestry, Range and Wildlife Management, UCA&ES, The Islamia University of Bahawalpur, 63100 Pakistan
Received November 10, 2014
—The present study was conducted to evaluate the impact of different mating ratios (malefemale)
on egg production, egg fertilization %, egg hatching % and courtship behavior in Silver Pheasant
at three stations for a period of 16 weeks. The birds were kept in four groups with following male
female ratios: GroupA (1:2), GroupB (1:3), GroupC (1:4) and GroupD (1:5). The results showed that
GroupB (1:3) ratio has significant effect on mean number of eggs (1.75
0.15), GroupC (1:4) on weight of
5.02), GroupC (1:4) and GroupD (1:5) on egg fertilization and hatching % while GroupB
(1:3), GroupC (1:4) and GroupD (1:5) on time spent in mating. The feed consumed and feed conversion
ratio was significant in GroupD (1:5).
: Silver Pheasant, mating ratios, reproductive efficiency, captivity.