Pathol. Oncol. Res. (2018) 24:497–505 DOI 10.1007/s12253-017-0270-y ORIGINAL ARTICLE + + + Immunohistochemical Analysis of Foxp3 ,CD4 ,CD8 Cell Infiltrates and PD-L1 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma 1 1 Olga Stasikowska-Kanicka & Małgorzata Wągrowska-Danilewicz & Marian Danilewicz Received: 16 September 2016 /Accepted: 22 June 2017 /Published online: 1 July 2017 The Author(s) 2017. This article is an open access publication Abstract The immunoexpression of the PD-L1 and the num- correlation between immunoexpression of PD-L1 and the ber of immune infiltrating cells have been shown to be a sig- number of CD4+ cells in OSCCPP group. In conclusion, our nificant prognostic factors in various human cancers. findings support the hypothesis of involvement of Tregs and Immunohistochemical method was used to examine the PD-L1 in OSCC development and progression. immunoexpression of PD-L1 and number of Foxp3+, CD4+ . . . , CD8+ cells in 78 cases of oral squamous cell carcinomas Keywords Treg FoxP3 PD-L1 Oral cancer (OSCCs): with better prognosis - OSCCBP (n = 37), and with poorer prognosis - OSCCPP (n = 41), and 18 cases of normal mucosa as a control. The immunoexpression of PD-L1 and the Introduction mean number of Foxp3+ cells was significantly increased in OSCCPP group in comparison to OSCCBP and control Cancer of the oral cavity is the sixth most common malignan- groups. The mean number of CD4+ cells was significantly cy reported worldwide . It is the most common cancer in increased in OSCCPP group in comparison to OSCCBP and males and the third most common cancer in females . Every control groups. CD8+ cells were significantly more numerous year, an estimated 3 million new cases occur worldwide, and in OSCCBP group in comparison to OSCCPP and control the overall 5-year survival rate for oral squamous cell carci- group. In both OSCCPP and OSCCBP groups there were noma (OSCC) is only 50%. Chronic inflammation, coupled positive significant correlations between number of Foxp3+ with alcohol, betel quid and cigarette consumption is associ- and CD4+ cells. We found positive correlations between the ated with oral squamous cell carcinoma . immunoexpression of PD-L1 and numbers of Foxp3+ cells, Regulatory T cells (Treg) consist of functionally diverse and negative correlation between the immunoexpression of subsets of immunosuppressive T cells that play a crucial role PD-L1 and numbers of CD8+ cells in both OSCCPP and in the modulation of immune responses and the reduction of OSCCBP groups. We found also significant positive deleterious immune activation . Several subsets of Treg cells have been identified and characterized, such as CD8 Treg cells, CD4 Treg cells, and γδ-TCR . Tregs can be divided * Olga Stasikowska-Kanicka into two subpopulations: natural occurring (nTreg) which de- firstname.lastname@example.org velop in the thymus, and adaptive (iTreg) generated in the periphery from CD4 naive T cells . Tregs are capable of Małgorzata Wągrowska-Danilewicz migrating to inflammation sites and suppressing a broad range email@example.com of effector lymphocytes, particularly helper T (Th) cell subsets, Marian Danilewicz such as Th1, Th2, Th17, and follicular Th (Tfh) cells [7, 8]. firstname.lastname@example.org Until now, Foxp3 (forkhead box P3) has been the most specific marker distinguishing Treg cells from T cells. Foxp3 is a mem- Department of Nephropathology, Medical University of Lodz, ul. Czechoslowacka 8/10, 92-216 Lodz, Poland ber of the forkhead/winged-helix family of transcription factors that are critically involved in the development and function of Department of Pathomorphology, Medical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland Tregs . The lack of Tregs due to the loss of Foxp3 function 498 Stasikowska-Kanicka O. et al. leads to autoimmune diseases whereas high prevalence of basis of their PD-L1 status and the presence or absence of Tregs in the peripheral blood due to the over-expression of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). These include type I + pos Foxp3 causes immunodeficiency . Foxp3 Tregs can sup- (PD-L1 with TILs driving adaptive immune resistance), type press the activation, proliferation, and effector functions of nu- II (PD-L1 negative with no TIL indicating immune ignorance), + + pos merous cell types, including CD4 ,CD8 Tcells, dendritic type III (PD-L1 with no TIL indicating intrinsic induction) cells (DCs), B cells, and natural killer (NK) cells . and type IV (PD-L1 negative with TIL indicating the role of Emerging evidence supports the notion that Treg popula- other suppressor(s) in promoting immune tolerance) . tion plays a critical role in the suppression of anti-tumor im- Therefore, the objectives of this study were to evaluate the + + mune response and thus contributes to cancer progression. immunoexpression of PD-L1 and the number of CD4 ,CD8 , Tregs can mediate peripheral tolerance by suppressing self- Foxp3 cells in oral cancers. Another purpose was to find + + antigen reactive T cells . Since most tumor antigens are possible association between number of Foxp3 ,CD4 , self-antigens, the suppression of tumor antigen reactive T lym- CD8 cells and immunoexpression of PD-L1. phocytes by Tregs is an important obstacle in antitumor im- munity . Tumor cells can secrete soluble factors that pro- mote the induction, expansion, and recruitment of Treg cells Material and Methods to the tumor microenvironment. Therefore, tumors contribute to the generation and expansion of Treg cells in the tumor Patients microenvironment . There are three ways of Tregs accumu- lation within the tumor microenvironment: increased migra- Seventy eight formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue spec- tion, preferential Treg cells expansion, and de novo conver- imens of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC), and eigh- sion of Foxp3 T cells into Treg cells . teen control cases (normal mucosa, non-cancer affected pa- The programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) belongs to the B7 tients) were retrieved from archival material (Chair of superfamily, which also includes B7–1 (CD80), B7–2 Pathomorphology, Medical University of Lodz, Poland). (CD86), B7-DC (PDL2), B7-H2, B7-H3, B7-H4 and B7-H6 Paraffin-embedded tissue sections taken from postoperative . PD-L1 has two known receptors, programmed death-1 material were diagnosed using a standard haematoxylin and (PD-1) and B7–1(CD80). PD-1 as a dominant receptor, eosin staining and the histological diagnoses were established belongs to the CD28 family and is expressed on T cells, den- according to the current standards . The main criteria for dritic cells, natural killer cells, macrophages and B cells . patients selection was the same anatomical localization of le- PD-L1 is constitutively expressed on murine T, B cells, DCs, sions (the floor of the mouth). To find the possible relationship macrophages, mesenchymal stem cells and cultured bone between the studied markers and clinical prognosis, patients marrow-derived mast cells . PD-L1 is also expressed on with OSCC were additionally divided into two groups: with non-hematopoietic cells, including epithelial, vascular endo- better prognosis – OSCCBP (without metastases, n =37), and thelial, muscle cells, hepatocyte, pancreatic and astrocyte with poorer prognosis – OSCCPP, (with metastases to region- cells, in addition to its expression in the eye , lung, kidney, al lymph nodes or/and with distant metastases, n =41). The spleen, thymus, placenta, and the heart . histopathological grade was classified into groups according PD-L1 is both inducible and constitutively expressed on cells to the WHO classification (for OSCCBP: G1 n =3, G2 n =33, of many solid and hematologic malignancies [19–23]. The ab- G3 n = 1, and for OSCCPP: G1 n =0, G2 n =36, G3 n =5). normal expression of PD-L1 has been linked with prognosis and The age range for OSCCBP group was from 28 to 75 years treatment response in multiple malignancies. An overexpression (mean ± SD = 59,24 ± 10, 89), for OSCCPP group was from of PD-L1 has been observed in different solid tumors including 40 to 84 (mean ± SD = 59,39 ± 11,16) and for control cases 15 melanoma , colorectal cancer , lung cancer , pancre- to 74 (mean ± SD = 47,05 ± 18,71). atic carcinoma  and hepatocellular carcinoma . Mounting evidence suggests that the PD1:PD-L1 pathway Immunohistochemistry may play a central role in antigen-specific T cell response mediating PD-1-dependent immune suppression. When PD- Paraffin-embedded, 3-μm tissue sections were mounted onto 1 interacts with cells bearing one of its ligands, which can be SuperFrost slides (SuperFrost Plus, Gerhord Menzel GmbH, highly expressed on cancer cells, the ability of T cells to target Braunschweig, Germany), deparaffinized in xylene and ethanol the tumor cells can be effectively subverted . Tumors can of graded concentrations. For antigen retrieval, the slides were thereby employ the PD-1:PD-L1 inhibitory pathway to silence treated in a microwave oven in a solution of TRS (Target the immune system. Thus, interrupting this interaction can Retrieval Solution, High pH, Dako, Denmark) for 30 min improve the ability of T cells to attack tumor cells. (2 × 6 minutes 360 W, 2 × 5 180 W, 2 × 4 minutes 90 W). Tumors escape immune surveillance by a number of mech- After cooling down at room temperature, they were transferred anisms of which four groups have now been proposed on the to 0,3% hydrogen peroxide in methanol, for 30 min, to block + FoxP3 Cells and PD-L1 in Oral Squamous Carcinoma 499 endogenous peroxidase activities. Sections were rinsed with Results Tris-buffered saline (TBS, Dako, Denmark) and incubated from 30 to 60 min with monoclonal mouse primary antibodies The cytoplasmic, perinuclear and nuclear pattern of Foxp3 against: CD4 (Dako; clone: 4B12, dilution 1:40), CD8 (Dako; immunoexpression on tumor infiltrating cells was seen in clone: C8/144B, dilution 1:50), Foxp3 (Abcam; clone: all OSCC cases and 9 control cases. Tumor cells were de- 236A/E7, dilution 1:50), and rabbit polyclonal antibody against void of Foxp3 staining. CD4 and CD8 were clearly stained PD-L1 (Abcam; dilution 1:400). Immunoreactive proteins were in the cell membrane of infiltrating cells of control and visualized using adequate EnVision-HRP kit (Dako, OSCC cases. The immunoexpression of PD-L1 in cancer Carpinteria, CA, USA) according to the instructions of the cells was predominantly cytoplasmic although membra- manufacturer. Visualisation was performed by incubation the nous expression was also noted. Membranous PD-L1 sections in a solution of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (Dako, immunoexpression was predominantly detected on infiltrat- Denmark). After washing, the sections were counterstained ingcells.Inour studyPD-L1wasexpressedoncancercells with Mayer’s hematoxylin and mounted. For each antibody and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as well as epithelial, and for each sample a negative control was processed. vascular endothelial and infiltrating cells of control cases. Negative controls were carried out by incubation in the absence The cytoplasmic immunoexpression of PD-L1 on cancer of the primary antibody and always yielded negative results. cells was noted in 37 of 41 cases of SCCPP group, in 25 In each specimen distribution and cytoplasmic staining in- of 37 cases of SCCBP group, and in 16 of 18 control cases. tensity of PD-L1 in cancer cells were recorded semiquantita- The semiquantitative and quantitative data on the + + + tively by two independent observers in 7–10 (depending on immunoexpression of PD-L1, Foxp3 ,CD4 and CD8 cells the specimen size) adjacent high power fields and graded from appear in Table 1. The immunoexpression of PD-L1 and the 0 (staining not detectable), 1 (weak immunostaining), 2 (mod- mean number of Foxp3 cells was significantly increased in erate immunostaining intensity) and 3 (strong staining). The OSCCPP group (Figs. 1 and 2), in comparison to OSCCBP mean grade was calculated by averaging grades assigned by (Figs. 3 and 4) and control groups (Figs. 5 and 6). We also the two authors and approximating the arithmetical mean to found significantly higher immunoexpression of PD-L1 and the nearest unity. number of Foxp3 cells in OSCCBP compared to control group. The mean number of CD4 cells was significantly in- creased in OSCCPP group (Fig. 7) in comparison to both Morphometry OSCCBP (Fig. 8) and control groups (Fig. 9). CD8 cells were significantly more frequent in OSCCBP group (Fig. 10)in + + + Foxp3 ,CD4 and CD8 cells were evaluated using computer comparison to OSCCPP (Fig. 11) and control group (Fig. 12). image analysis system consisting of a PC computer equipped In both OSCCPP and OSCCBP groups there were positive with a Pentagram graphic tablet, Indeo Fast card (frame grab- significant correlations between the number of Foxp3 and ber, true-color, real-time), produced by Indeo (Taiwan), and CD4 cells, whereas the correlations between the number of + + color TV camera Panasonic (Japan) coupled with Carl Zeiss Foxp3 and CD8 cells were not statistically significant microscope (Germany). This system was programmed (Table 2). The correlative study revealed in both OSCCPP (MultiScan 18.03 software, produced by Computer Scanning and OSCCBP groups, positive correlations between the Systems, Poland) to calculate the number of objects (semiau- immunoexpression of PD-L1 and numbers of Foxp3 cells, tomatic function). and negative correlation between the immunoexpression of + + + + The number of Foxp3 ,CD4 as well as CD8 cells was PD-L1 and numbers of CD8 cells. We found also significant estimated by counting all positive cells in 7–10 high power positive correlation between immunoexpression of PD-L1 and 2 + monitor fields (HPF) (0.029 mm each), marking the number of CD4 cells in OSCCPP group (Table 3). immunopositive cells (semiautomatic function). The results In control group all these correlations were weak and not were presented as a number of positive cells per HPF. significant (data not shown). Statistical Methods Discussion Differences between groups were tested using unpaired There is accumulating evidence that head and neck squamous Student’s t-test preceded by evaluation of normality and cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients display increased levels of Levene’s test. The Mann-Whitney U test was used where ap- nTreg cells with greater suppressive activity, compared to propriate. Correlation coefficients were calculated using healthy controls [27, 28]. However, while some studies have Spearman’s method. Results were considered statistically sig- linked higher Treg cells levels to worse clinical outcome in nificant if p <0.05. HNSCC , others have provided conflicting results . 500 Stasikowska-Kanicka O. et al. Table 1 The immunoexpression Groups PD-L1 (mean score) Foxp3 Cells/HPF CD4+ Cells/HPF CD8+ Cells/HPF of PD-L1, Foxp3, lymphocytes CD4+ and CD8+ in oral OSCCPP (n = 41) 2.33 ± 2.02 13.4 ± 10.2 18.6 ± 12.3 9.7 ± 2.9 squamous cell carcinomas with poorer prognosis (OSCCPP), in OSCCBP (n = 37) 1.32 ± 1.26 7.7 ± 6.2 12.2 ± 7.1 17.8 ± 11.1 oral squamous cell carcinomas Controls (n = 18) 0.63 ± 0.62 2.4 ± 1.8 9.5 ± 5.5 8.2 ± 4.3 with better prognosis (OSCCBP) OSCCPP vs OSCCBP p <0.011 p <0.005 p <0.007 p <0.001 and controls OSCCPP vs control p <0.002 p <0.001 p <0.004 p = 0.12 (NS) OSCCBP vs control p <0.033 p <0.05 p =0.16 (NS) p <0.001 NS not significant Foxp3 is known as the most specific marker distinguishing increased number of Foxp3 cells in the OSCCPP group com- Treg cells from T cells, and in our study Foxp3 was expressed pared to OSCCBP. An association between high intratumoral on tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes - tumor cells were entirely density of Foxp3 cells and poorer clinical prognosis can sug- negative. In contrary to above-mentioned results, Liang et al. gest that the presence of Foxp3 cells might play a role in  observed in tongue cancer, that Foxp3 can be expressed OSCC progression. Increased Foxp3 Treg infiltration has been by both tumor cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and known to be associated with worse clinical outcomes and that tumor cells were the major cell types expressing Foxp3 various poor prognostic factors in many cancers [33–35]. (59,3% of tongue squamous cell carcinomas). Similar positive Suzuki et al.  found in colorectal cancer that the number score for Foxp3 immunoexpression was observed in pancre- of intratumoral Foxp3 cells was positively associated with atic cancer cells (61%) , and breast cancer tissues (57% lymph node metastases. Furthermore, it has been reported that and 73%) . Subcellular staining of Foxp3 was heteroge- high numbers of circulating Tregs are associated with rapid neous in the present study. Different expression level and tumor progression in experimental animal models of melano- complex post-translational modification of Foxp3 may be pos- ma and in patients with melanoma. In these patients, the pres- sible reasons. Chen et al.  demonstrated that in Tregs, ence of Foxp3 cells in primary tumor has also been associat- TCR-mediated post-translational modifications could mediate ed with a higher frequency of metastases in the sentinel lymph the regulation function, and influence the subcellular distribu- node . Even so, the association of Foxp3 expression and tion of Foxp3. Authors revealed a change in the subcellular its impact on overall survival remains controversial. Kim et al. localization of Foxp3 from a more cytoplasmic/perinuclear to  observed that Foxp3 expression in tumor cells of colo- a nuclear expression pattern in Tregs activated with anti-CD3/ rectal cancer, but not in infiltrating Treg cells, were correlated anti-CD28 antibodies. with disease progression and poor prognosis. Moreover, liter- In accordance with previous studies in various malignant ature data demonstrate that tumor infiltration by Foxp3 Tregs diseases [33, 34], we found significantly higher numbers of is not always associated with a poor prognosis, but, on the infiltrating Foxp3 cells in both tested groups of OSCC com- contrary, can be associated with an improved prognosis in pared with controls. Additionally, we found significantly some cancer types. In colorectal cancer, high levels of Fig. 1 Cytoplasmic immunoexpression of PD-L1 in oral squamous cell Fig. 2 Nuclear and perinuclear immunoexpression of Foxp3 in oral carcinomas with poorer prognosis (OSCCPP). Immunohistochemistry. squamous cell carcinomas with poorer prognosis (OSCCPP). Total magnification × 100 Immunohistochemistry. Total magnification × 100 + FoxP3 Cells and PD-L1 in Oral Squamous Carcinoma 501 Fig. 3 Cytoplasmic immunoexpression of PD-L1 in oral squamous cell Fig. 5 Cytoplasmic immunoexpression of PD-L1 in control. carcinomas with better prognosis (OSCCBP). Immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry. Total magnification × 100 Total magnification × 100 intratumoral CD4 cells in the group of OSCCPP compared infiltrating Treg cells were associated with early stage disease to OSCCBP and controls. An association between high and improved prognosis [39, 40]. intratumoral density of CD4 cells and poorer clinical prog- Tumor-derived CD4 Treg cells have been extensively nosis seems to be consistent with other findings . In breast + + + studied in many different types of cancer. It has been strongly cancer, the frequency of CD4 CD25 FoxP3 regulatory T suggested that antigen-specific CD4 Tregs at tumor sites may cells was inversely correlated with clinical outcomes . In significantly suppress immune responses, leading to immune a mouse model of human breast cancer, the depletion of + + + + tolerance of tumor cells. Among various CD4 T cell frac- CD4 CD25 T cells was shown to reduce CD4 CD25 T + + + tions, a particular subset with CD4 CD25 Foxp3 expression cell-mediated suppression, improve immunity, and enhance was previously described as regulatory T cells and was shown tumor regression . to mediate suppression . Increased number of CD4 cells We found significantly increased number of CD8 cells in and the positive correlation between number of Foxp3 and OSCCBP group in comparison to OSCCPP patients and con- CD4 cells was observed in both tested groups of OSCC, trols. These results seem to be consistent with other findings. suggesting that increased immune infiltration is associated Zhu et al.  observed that breast cancer patient survival was with an increased frequency of Treg cells within the infiltrate. associated with higher frequencies of CD8 cytotoxic T cells in Based on these data, we hypothesize also that the growth of infiltrating lymphocytes. Emerging evidence from clinical stud- OSCCs may induce the generation of CD4 Treg cells. ies emphasizes the role of CD8 T cells in the control of tumor Moreover, we described significantly increased number of growth and the prolongation of patient survival [45, 46]. Lack Fig. 4 Nuclear and perinuclear immunoexpression of Foxp3 in oral squamous cell carcinomas with better prognosis (OSCCBP). Fig. 6 Nuclear and perinuclear immunoexpression of Foxp3 in control. Immunohistochemistry. Total magnification × 100 Immunohistochemistry. Total magnification × 100 502 Stasikowska-Kanicka O. et al. Fig. 7 Membranous immunoexpression of CD4 in oral squamous cell Fig. 9 Membranous immunoexpressionof CD4incontrol. carcinomas with poorer prognosis (OSCCPP). Immunohistochemistry. Immunohistochemistry. Total magnification × 100 Total magnification × 100 of significant correlations between number of Foxp3 and cells and epithelial and vascular endothelial cells in control CD8 cells in both studied groups of cancers suggest that cases. Lyford-Pike et al.  suggest that in normal tissue, CD8 cells observed in our study may have other than regula- PD-L1 is induced in response to inflammatory cytokines such tory functions or represent non-traditional subpopulation of as IFN-γ. This system represents a major mechanism for tis- Tregs. Recent studies demonstrated that Foxp3 T cells are sue protection in the setting of T cell-mediated inflammation. heterogeneous with respect to phenotype, gene expression, It is well established that PD-L1 expression is up-regulated in and function, including suppressive and non-suppressive sub- solid tumors where it can provide direct tumor protection, and populations . Miyara et al.  divided human Foxp3 + reduce activity of PD-1 expressing tumor-infiltrating effector cells into three functional subpopulations: effector, resting and CD4 and CD8 T cells [24, 50]. We observed a significantly non-suppressive cytokine-secreting Tregs. increased immonoexpression of PD-L1 in both tested groups In recent years, many studies have confirmed that cancer of OSCC compared to controls. Overexpression of PD-L1 has cells can evade host immune systems by expressing certain been identified in several cancers, including the head and neck ligands that down-regulate cytotoxic T lymphocytes through cancers [24, 48]. We found significantly higher immunoexpression of PD-L1 in OSCCPP compared to inhibitory pathways that are usually initiated by ligand- receptor interactions . Currently, PD-1:PD-L1 pathway OSCCBP. Our results are in concordance with literature data seems to be a one of major mechanism of controlling tumor [48, 51]. Thompson et al.  reported statistically significant immunity. In our study PD-L1 was expressed on infiltrating association of PD-L1 expression with poor clinical outcome in Fig. 8 Membranous immunoexpression of CD4 in oral squamous cell Fig. 10 Membranous immunoexpression of CD8 in oral squamous cell carcinomas with better prognosis (OSCCBP). Immunohistochemistry. carcinomas with better prognosis (OSCCBP). Immunohistochemistry. Total magnification × 100 Total magnification × 100 + FoxP3 Cells and PD-L1 in Oral Squamous Carcinoma 503 Table 2 The correlations between mean number of Foxp3+ and CD4+, CD8+ cells in oral squamous cell carcinomas with poorer prognosis (OSCCPP), and oral squamous cell carcinomas with better prognosis (OSCCBP) Correlations OSCCPP (n = 41) OSCCBP (n =37) Foxp3+ vs r =0. 44, p <0.005 r =0.35, p < 0.04 CD4+ cells Foxp3+ vs r = − 0.21, p =0.18 (NS) r = − 0.27, p = 0.11(NS) CD8+ cells NS not significant infiltrating CD8 cells in both tested groups of OSCC. In contrary to our results, Thompson demonstrated that gastric cancer patients with higher CD8 T cell densities also have Fig. 11 Membranous immunoexpression of CD8 in oral squamous cell higher PD-L1 expression, indicating an adaptive immune re- carcinomas with poorer prognosis (OSCCPP). Immunohistochemistry. sistance mechanism may be occurring. Lyford-Pike et al.  Total magnification × 100 using quantitative RT-PCR found a significant increase in the expression of CD8 mRNA in PD-L1(+) as compared to PD- gastric cancer. Lin et al.  indicated that a higher PD-L1 L1(−) in oropharyngael cancer. On the other hand, Tokito expression level was correlated with several clinicopatholog- et al.  observed that lack of PD-L1 immunoexpression ical factors, such as distant metastasis. These authors sug- accompanied by increased CD8 cells density was significant- gested also that PD-L1 immunoexpression might be associat- ly associated with favourable survival in non-small cell lung ed with oral cancer development and progression. We found cancer. Increased number of CD8 cells in OSCCBP group, significant positive correlation between immunoexpression of lack of correlation of PD-L1 with number of Foxp3 cells and PD-L1 in tumor cells and the number of infiltrating Foxp3 negative correlation between number of CD8 cells and cells in both tested groups of OSCC and between PD-L1 and immunoexpression of PD-L1 seem to be consistent and sug- number of CD4 cells in OSCCPP group. Similar to melano- gest that tumor infiltrating CD8 cells may have other than ma , and in keeping with the proposed adaptive resistance suppressive function. hypothesis, in our study PD-L1 was not expressed uniformly Literature data and our results revealed the complicated within OSCCs, but rather at sites of lymphocyte infiltration. interactions within the tumor microenvironment and empha- Our results suggest that PD-L1 immunoexpression on cancer size that impact of individual types of immune cells may be cells is associated with Treg infiltration, and PD-L1 may be highly dependent on many factors. We hypothesize that the induced by an inflammatory microenvironment involving microenvironment of a tumor is critically important in deter- TILs. mining leukocyte phenotype and function. We speculate also We found significant negative correlation between that not only the number, type and localization of tumor infil- immunoexpression of PD-L1 on cancer cells and number of trating lymphocytes but activity (e.g. cytokine releasing pat- terns) of particular infiltrating cells can determine mutual re- lationship and has prognostic value. Although our findings support the hypothesis of involve- ment of Tregs and PD-L1 in OSCC development and progres- sion, further studies of the relationship between number and Table 3 The correlations between the immunoexpression of PD-L1 and mean number of Foxp3+, CD4+, CD8+ cells in oral squamous cell carcinomas with poorer prognosis (OSCCPP), and oral squamous cell carcinomas with better prognosis (OSCCBP) Correlation between OSCCPP (n =41) OSCCBP (n =37) PD-L1 vs Foxp3+ cells r =0.42, p <0.007 r =035, p <0.04 PD-L1 vs CD4+ cells r =0.31, p <0.002 r =0.25, p = 0.14 (NS) PD-L1 vs CD8+ cells r = − 0.47, p <0.05 r = − 0.33, p <0.05 Fig. 12 Membranous immunoexpression of CD8 in control. Immunohistochemistry. Total magnification × 100 NS not significant 504 Stasikowska-Kanicka O. et al. 17. 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Pathology & Oncology Research – Springer Journals
Published: Jul 1, 2017
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