Zero-injection buses (ZIBs) can reduce the number of phasor measurement units (PMUs) required to be installed for complete observability. It has been demonstrated that a group of neighboring ZIBs can further reduce this required number of PMUs. In contrast to a single ZIB, the effect of a group of ZIBs has not been incorporated into the model of optimal PMU placement (OPP) using mathematical approaches, except for some heuristics methods. In this paper, a novel methodology to incorporate the effect of a group of ZIBs into the OPP model is proposed, using the integer linear programming approach. Two common contingencies—line outage and PMU loss—are also considered. Moreover, two visualization techniques are used for illustrating the locations of PMUs obtained from OPP: (1) using a graph-based force-directed method and (2) on a map using the geographic information system. The proposed method is verified using several small- and large-scale test systems and compared with other related studies.
Journal of Control, Automation and Electrical Systems – Springer Journals
Published: May 30, 2018
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