Identification and characterization of new long conserved noncoding sequences in vertebrates

Identification and characterization of new long conserved noncoding sequences in vertebrates Comparative sequence analyses have identified highly conserved genomic DNA sequences, including noncoding sequences, between humans and other species. By performing whole-genome comparisons of human and mouse, we have identified 611 conserved noncoding sequences longer than 500 bp, with more than 95% identity between the species. These long conserved noncoding sequences (LCNS) include 473 new sequences that do not overlap with previously reported ultraconserved elements (UCE), which are defined as aligned sequences longer than 200 bp with 100% identity in human, mouse, and rat. The LCNS were distributed throughout the genome except for the Y chromosome and often occurred in clusters within regions with a low density of coding genes. Many of the LCNS were also highly conserved in other mammals, chickens, frogs, and fish; however, we were unable to find orthologous sequences in the genomes of invertebrate species. In order to examine whether these conserved sequences are functionally important or merely mutational cold spots, we directly measured the frequencies of ENU-induced germline mutations in the LCNS of the mouse. By screening about 40.7 Mb, we found 35 mutations, including mutations at nucleotides that were conserved between human and fish. The mutation frequencies were equivalent to those found in other genomic regions, including coding sequences and introns, suggesting that the LCNS are not mutational cold spots at all. Taken together, these results suggest that mutations occur with equal frequency in LCNS but are eliminated by natural selection during the course of evolution. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Mammalian Genome Springer Journals

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/identification-and-characterization-of-new-long-conserved-noncoding-lS0n0zUu81
Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2008 by The Author(s)
Subject
Life Sciences; Zoology ; Anatomy ; Cell Biology
ISSN
0938-8990
eISSN
1432-1777
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00335-008-9152-7
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Comparative sequence analyses have identified highly conserved genomic DNA sequences, including noncoding sequences, between humans and other species. By performing whole-genome comparisons of human and mouse, we have identified 611 conserved noncoding sequences longer than 500 bp, with more than 95% identity between the species. These long conserved noncoding sequences (LCNS) include 473 new sequences that do not overlap with previously reported ultraconserved elements (UCE), which are defined as aligned sequences longer than 200 bp with 100% identity in human, mouse, and rat. The LCNS were distributed throughout the genome except for the Y chromosome and often occurred in clusters within regions with a low density of coding genes. Many of the LCNS were also highly conserved in other mammals, chickens, frogs, and fish; however, we were unable to find orthologous sequences in the genomes of invertebrate species. In order to examine whether these conserved sequences are functionally important or merely mutational cold spots, we directly measured the frequencies of ENU-induced germline mutations in the LCNS of the mouse. By screening about 40.7 Mb, we found 35 mutations, including mutations at nucleotides that were conserved between human and fish. The mutation frequencies were equivalent to those found in other genomic regions, including coding sequences and introns, suggesting that the LCNS are not mutational cold spots at all. Taken together, these results suggest that mutations occur with equal frequency in LCNS but are eliminated by natural selection during the course of evolution.

Journal

Mammalian GenomeSpringer Journals

Published: Nov 18, 2008

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off