Hypomethylation of functional retrotransposon-derived genes in the human placenta

Hypomethylation of functional retrotransposon-derived genes in the human placenta DNA hypomethylation is assumed to be a feature of the mammalian placenta; however, its role in regulating placental gene expression is not well defined. In this study, MeDIP and Sequenom MassARRAY were used to identify hypomethylated gene promoters in the human placenta. Among the genes identified, the hypomethylation of an alternative promoter for KCNH5 was found to be restricted to the placenta and chorion. Complete methylation of this promoter correlates with a silenced KCNH5 transcript in embryonic tissues, including the amnion. Unusually, this hypomethylated promoter and the alternative first exon are derived from a SINE (AluY) retrotransposon. Examination of additional retrotransposon-derived gene promoters in the placenta confirmed that retrotransposon hypomethylation permits the placenta-specific expression of these genes. Furthermore, the lineage-specific methylation displayed by KCNH5, INSL4, and ERVWE1 revealed that dichotomous methylation establishes differential retrotransposon silencing between the extra-embryonic and embryonic lineages. The hypomethylation of the retrotransposons that regulate these genes, each of which arose during recent primate evolution, is consistent with these genes having functional roles that are unique to the invasive haemochorial placentas of humans and recent primates. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Mammalian Genome Springer Journals

Hypomethylation of functional retrotransposon-derived genes in the human placenta

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Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Copyright
Copyright © 2011 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Subject
Life Sciences; Zoology; Cell Biology; Anatomy
ISSN
0938-8990
eISSN
1432-1777
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00335-011-9355-1
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

DNA hypomethylation is assumed to be a feature of the mammalian placenta; however, its role in regulating placental gene expression is not well defined. In this study, MeDIP and Sequenom MassARRAY were used to identify hypomethylated gene promoters in the human placenta. Among the genes identified, the hypomethylation of an alternative promoter for KCNH5 was found to be restricted to the placenta and chorion. Complete methylation of this promoter correlates with a silenced KCNH5 transcript in embryonic tissues, including the amnion. Unusually, this hypomethylated promoter and the alternative first exon are derived from a SINE (AluY) retrotransposon. Examination of additional retrotransposon-derived gene promoters in the placenta confirmed that retrotransposon hypomethylation permits the placenta-specific expression of these genes. Furthermore, the lineage-specific methylation displayed by KCNH5, INSL4, and ERVWE1 revealed that dichotomous methylation establishes differential retrotransposon silencing between the extra-embryonic and embryonic lineages. The hypomethylation of the retrotransposons that regulate these genes, each of which arose during recent primate evolution, is consistent with these genes having functional roles that are unique to the invasive haemochorial placentas of humans and recent primates.

Journal

Mammalian GenomeSpringer Journals

Published: Aug 27, 2011

References

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