HYDROSTATIC COMPACTION OF REFRACTORY ARTICLES
FOR CONTINUOUS BILLET CASTING MACHINES
G. A. Il’in
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 11, pp. 31 – 38, November 2007.
Original article submitted March 19, 2007.
Development of technology and equipment for compaction of refractory articles for a continuous billet casting
machine (CBCM) in the Soviet Union and in Russia from the 1960s up to the present day is considered.
The main production schemes for compaction and design layouts for compaction equipment (hydrostats)
used in the country are given and there is also comparative analysis of compaction processes for refractory
components for CBCM used in Russia and abroad.
In the Soviet Union the first production of refractories
for CBCM relates to the 1960s. Then in view of starting up
the first CBCM of the vertical type in the Novolipetsk Metal-
lurgical plant (NLMZ) in order to satisfy requirements of
CBCM in steel-casting mills of domestic production the
Podolsk Refractory Plant organized the production of quartz
steel-casting nozzles by slip casting. However, the engineer-
ing process of slip casting is complicated, labor-consuming
and prolonged, and the cost of a series produced quartz noz-
zle markedly exceeds that for corundum-graphite nozzles.
In addition quartz nozzles are distinguished by short life in
casting manganese steels.
Work in the field of hydrostatic compaction of corun
dum-graphite refractories for CBCM at the start of the 1960s
was concentrated in the All-Union Institute of Refractories,
UkrNIIO, the Western Institute of Refractories, the Konstan
tinov and Bogdanovich Refractory Plants, the Borovich Re
fractory Combine, the Novomoskovsk Refractory Plant,
VNIImetmash, and connected with the names Yu. V. Mate
rikin, L. M. Aksel’rod, V. D. Yashin, V. P. Migal’, L. G. Sto
chek, G. A. Il’in, N. V. Ryazanova and others.
· With the aim of realizing these development the Min
istry of Ferrous Metallurgy of the USSR bought from the en
gineering plant ZDAZ (Czechoslovakia) two hydrostats that
were installed in the Konstantinov Refractory Plant (Ukra
ine). The dimensions of the compaction chamber were: inter
nal diameter 630, height 2200 mm, p = 150 MPa and corre
spondingly 100, 2000 mm and 100 MPa. The hydrostat from
the ZDAZ Plant (Fig. 1) was made in the form of a container,
installed immobile, and a mobile ram that receives an axial
force that arises in the container during compaction. The
container was assembled from two thin-walled sleeves
seated in each other with an interference fit. From above and
below the container was hermetically closed with upper and
lower plugs with sealing rings, the upper plug was installed
in the container and extracted from it during each compac-
tion cycle. In the gap between the upper end of the upper
plug and the ram there was a movable steel plate that trans-
ferred an axial force to the ram. High pressure of the liquid
(emulsion) was created by a separately placed booster. The
compaction production process was accomplished by the
“wet bag” (Fig. 2) method and included the following opera
tions. In the starting position the ram was moved with the
axis of the container by means of a hydraulic cylinder. The
mould was installed in a vibrovacuum unit within which
there was mechanized pouring of powder. After pouring a
dose of powder with simultaneous vibration compaction the
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 48, No. 5, 2007
1083-4877/07/4805-0349 © 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
PK Izostat, Russia.
Fig. 1. Structural layout of the ZDAZ Engineering Plant hydrostat:
1, mobile frame; 2, upper plug; 3, lower plug; 4, container stand;
5, heavy-duty plate.