Res. Chem. Intermed, Vol. 24, No. 2, pp. 183-196 (1998) 9 VSP 1998 HYDRAZINE SYNTHESIS: COMMERCIAL ROUTES, CATALYSIS AND INTERMEDIATES HIROMU HAYASHI Department of Chemical Science and Technology, University of Tokushima, Minamijosanjima, Tokushima 770 JAPAN Received 3 September 1997; accepted 18 December 1997 CONTENTS I. Introduction II. Formation of Hydrazine: Publication Statistics and Installed Capacity III. Commercial Routes to Hydrazine: Chemistry and Intermediates Raschig Synthesis (NaOH-CI2-NH3) Schestakov Synthesis (NaOH-C12-Urea) Bayer Process (Ketone-NH3-Cl2) Ugine Kuhkmann (Atochem) Process (Ketone-NH3-H202) IV. Catalytic Oxidation with Molecular Oxygen Chemistry of lmines Copper-Catalyzed Oxidative N-N Coupling: Azine Synthesis a) Copper Complexes b) Monodentate Pyridines c) Active Copper Species d) Structure of Copper Complexes e) Copper-Loaded Polymer Catalysts Recovery of Hydrazine V. Attempted Catalytic Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidation Activation of Hydrogen Peroxide Oxaziridine Intermediate Hydroxylamine Hydrazine VI. Conclusion I. INTRODUCTION Hydrazine is one of the most versatile chemicals, finding use in a wide spectrum of applications such as an energy source in fuel cells and rocket propulsion, synthesis 184 I~ Hayashi of organic nitrogen compounds for medical and agricultural use, a blowing agent for polymers, and an oxygen scavenger for boiler water . Comparing aquo- (H-O-H) and ammono- (H-NH-H) systems, hydrazine (H-NH-NH-H) can be regarded as the
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