Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 2, pp. 244−247.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text © Yu.N. Pozhidaev, O.V. Lebedeva, 2012, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 2, pp. 255−258.
AND INDUSTRIAL ORGANIC CHEMISTRY
Hybrid Composites Based on 3-Aminopropyltriethoxysilane
and Nitrogen Polybases
Yu. N. Pozhidaev and O. V. Lebedeva
Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk, Russia
Received October 19, 2011
Abstract—Process in which composites are formed in sol-gel systems based on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane and
vinyl derivatives of nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compounds was studied. These products are highly dispersed
and thermally stable interpenetrating polymers insoluble in water and organic solvents. Their composition and
structure were examined.
Polymer-inorganic composites containing organic
and inorganic phases are objects of newest technologies
because of combining the best properties of metal oxides
and polymers. One of ways to obtain hybrid materials of
this kind is the sol-gel synthesis based on hydrolysis of
At present, sol-gel techniques have become the main
way to purposefully obtain silicate, organosilicon, and
hybrid materials (coatings, powders, nanomaterials,
thin-layer membranes) [2, 3].
One of ways to form composite materials is by the sol-
gel process based on mixing of an already synthesized
organic polymer and a silicon-containing monomer .
This method for synthesis of hybrid composites excludes
the stage of polymerization of the organic monomer
and provides a high homogeneity of the material. This
way to produce composites (via formation of semi-
interpentrating networks) opens up broad opportunities
for functionalization of hybrid structures.
The quality of polymeric materials and composites
is commonly improved with a commercial organosili-
con monomer, 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES),
used in manufacture of glass and basalt ﬁ bers and paint-
and-varnish materials. Introduction of APTES into com-
posites improves the adhesion of various polymers and
coatings and raises their water resistance and anticor-
rosion stability . Hydrolysis of APTES in an acid
medium predominantly yields linear oligo- and polysi-
loxanes having a rather good solubility in aqueous-or-
ganic media. The main product formed by the reaction
of hydrolytic polycondensation of this monomer under
alkaline catalysis is poly(3-aminopropyl)silsesquioxane
with a 3D cross-linked structure insoluble in water and
organic solvents . Hydrolysis in an alkaline medium
provides spatial condensation of poly(3-aminopropyl)
silsesquioxane by the scheme
+ 3n H
→ n NH
+ 3n C
+ 1.5n H
This behavior of APTES in reactions of hydrolytic
polycondensation predetermined its choice as a precur-
sor for the silicon block of hybrid composites.
The goal of our study was to form the structure
and study properties of hybrid composites based on
APTES and polyvinyl nitrogen-containing heterocyclic
compounds. As the latter were chosen poly(1-
vinylimidazole) (PVI), poly(1-vimylpyrazole) (PVP),
poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PVSP), and poly(2-methyl-5-