Purpose of Review Facial synkinesis is a sequela of facial nerve injury that results in involuntary facial movement occurring simultaneously with volitional facial movement. Inability to control facial movement has functional and psychological conse- quences and can be socially isolating. This review discusses the involved facial nerves and musculature, evaluation of the synkinetic face, and different treatment options. Recent Findings We reviewed the literature for advancements and outcomes in assessment, rehabilitation, and non-surgical and surgical treatments for facial synkinesis while highlighting anatomical correlates and movement patterns of commonly affected facial musculature. Summary Understanding facial muscular anatomy, including the intended vectors of movement, guides appropriate therapeutic intervention and improves outcomes. Chemodenervation and rehabilitation continue to be the main treatment strategy for facial synkinesis. In select cases, other techniques, such as selective neurolysis, selective myectomy, nerve grafting, or free muscle transfer, are also available. . . . Keywords Synkinesis Non-flaccid facial paralysis Botulinum toxin Hyperkinesis Introduction to Facial Synkinesis eye closure, which may result in visual field narrowing and nasal obstruction. The asymmetric appearance of the face neg- Facial synkinesis is a condition characterized by unintentional atively impacts non-verbal communication and self-image. facial movement occurring simultaneously with intentional Social interactions and
Current Otorhinolaryngology Reports – Springer Journals
Published: May 5, 2018
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