The modern concept of the hormonal regulation of fruit set, growth, maturation, and ripening is considered. Pollination and fertilization induce ovule activation by surmounting the blocking action of ethylene and ABA to be manifested in auxin accumulation. Active fruit growth by pericarp cell division and elongation is due to the syntheses of auxin in the developing seed and of gibberellins in the pericarp. In climacteric fleshy fruits, the maturation is controlled by ethylene via so-called System 1 combining the possibilities of autoinhibition and autocatalysis by ethylene of its own biosynthesis. Transition of tomato fruits from maturation to ripening is characterized by highly active synthesis of ethylene and its receptors due to the functioning of regulatory System 2 resulting in the up-regulation of much greater number of ethylene-inducible genes. In peach fruits, the hormonal regulation of ripening includes also an active auxin involvement in the ethylene biosynthesis, which is combined with the ethylene-induced expression of genes encoding both auxin biosynthesis and the response to auxin. Ethylene induces the expression of genes responsible for the fruit softening, its taste, color, and flavor. Nonclimacteric fleshy fruits produce very small amounts of ethylene; its evolution increases only by the very end of ripening and can be described by a reduced System 1. The ripening of nonclimacteric fruits only weakly depends on ethylene but is stimulated by abscisic acid.
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jan 28, 2014
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