Miami-Dade County is a major HIV epicenter and a port of entry for immigrants from nations with high endemic rates of tuberculosis (TB). We analyzed data from an unlinked (blinded) serosurvey of clients attending four Miami TB clinics to elucidate the dynamic HIV seroprevalence patterns in relation to demographics and risk behaviors. Data were analyzed from 3,107 consecutive TB patients at four TB treatment clinics over eight years. Overall HIV seroprevalence was 23.6% with a significantly higher infection rate for men (26.6%) compared to women (17.3%) (p < 0.0001). In rank order, the HIV infection rates were 30.3% for black non-Hispanics, 24.7% for white non-Hispanics and 14.2% for Hispanics. U.S.-born clients had significantly higher HIV rates compared with foreign-born clients (32.4% vs. 18.5%, p < 0.0001). HIV rates declined over six years from (32.5% to 15.9%, p < 0.0001) with significant trends observed for men and women; and for blacks, whites and Hispanics. Seroprevalence was 15.7% for clients identifying heterosexual contact as their only risk. Highly significant increases in seroprevalence above this heterosexual-contact-only `baseline', were found for clients disclosing the following high-risk behaviors: male-to-male sex, drug injection, smoking crack cocaine, receiving or giving money/drugs for sex, and sexual contact with a drug injector or HIV-infected partner. While highly significant elevations in HIV seroprevalence were associated with each of these definitive risk behaviors, even the baseline HIV infection rate of 15.7% in heterosexual-contact-only clients was markedly higher than that of the general population. These findings underscore the need to obtain routine HIV serology on all TB patients.
Population Research and Policy Review – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 3, 2004
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