Information about embryonic development of coronary endothelium is the main clue for the creation of new methods in tissue engineering for treatment of ischemic heart diseases. The purpose of the research was to describe human coronary vessels development on early stages of the prenatal ontogenesis. The first step in human coronary vessels development is the formation of endothelium de novo by transformation of some epicardial and, possibly, endocardial cells. The next step is the ingrowth of sinus venosus endothelium in subepicardium over ventricles and atria, which gives rise to the coronary vessels. Only after 7 days does the primitive coronary plexus of the heart communicate with aorta (third step). During this period, some subepicardial vessels invade myocardium and some intramyocardial vessels contact with the heart cavity. Such intercommunications could help in regulation of blood circulation in primitive coronary plexus before establishment of effective contacts between arterial and venous vessels—excess of blood could be discharged directly into the heart cavity. Additional population of CD34+ cells were revealed inside condensed mesenchyme of the conotruncus; it participates in the formation of vasa vasorum in the aorta. Epicardium and sinus venosus generate endothelium of coronary vessels by neovasculo- and angiogenesis, respectively. During a week after ingrowth of vessels from SV and before their ingrowth to the aorta, ventriculo-coronary communications could be found in the heart.
Russian Journal of Developmental Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Nov 24, 2016
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