HIGH-STRENGTH PERICLASE-CARBON REFRACTORIES
BASED ON PHENOL-FORMALDEHYDE RESIN
WITH MODIFICATION OF DIFFERENT BATCH COMPONENTS
O. N. Borisenko,
G. D. Semchenko,
M. A. Chirkina,
and I. V. Kasymova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 7, pp. 52 – 55, July, 2006.
Original article submitted June 1, 2006.
The production of periclase-carbon refractories based on phenol-formaldehyde resin with modification of dif
ferent batch components is considered, which ensures a compression strength of 70 – 122 MPa. The strength
is increased by reinforcing the resite structure by polysiloxane bonds. The synthesis of SiC in the service of
refractories contributes to increasing the slag resistance of the refractory by being an additional antioxidant.
The refractory industry is currently oriented to increasing
the share of high-quality refractories with enhanced service
parameters, which lowers the consumption of refractories per
ton of product (steel, glass, cement, etc.) .
Manufacturers currently decrease the production of di-
nas, semi-acid, chamotte, periclase-chromite and lime-peri-
clase refractories on a binder made of sand and coal-tar pitch
and increase the production of carbon-bearing refractories,
including nonfired periclase-carbon materials that have high
refractoriness and erosion and corrosion resistance to metal
and oxide melts and, accordingly, better service durability.
Nonfired periclase-carbon refractories are used as lining in
steel-casting ladles, electric furnaces, and oxygen converters.
One of the main components of periclase-carbon refractories
is graphite, whose properties ensure high thermal conductiv
ity and slag resistance of these materials. A disadvantage of
periclase-carbon refractories is the capacity of graphite for
easy oxidation starting with 600°C. To protect graphite from
oxidation, powdered antioxidants are introduced into refrac
tory mixtures. The resistance and service reliability of peri
clase-carbon refractories largely depend on the quality of the
carbonaceous binder. The role of the binder is also essential
in the production of refractories; a binder determines the
moldability of a product, the convenience of casting the mix
ture into a mold, and the strength of the preform. The carbo
naceous binder in the heat treatment of product and lining
and in the service of metallurgical equipment serves as a ba
sis for the emerging refractory matrix, which affects its struc
tural and physicochemical properties .
Lately phenol-formaldehyde resins have been increas-
ingly used as carbonaceous binders in the production of peri-
clase-carbon refractories. Phenol-formaldehyde resins have a
high degree of polymerization and form a three-dimensional
resite structure of the carbonaceous skeleton, thus ensuring
high heat resistance and a high yield of coke residue . The
solidification of pillowcase phenol-formaldehyde resins
starts at around 95°C and ends at 180°C. Usually hexamethy-
lenetetramine (urotropin) is used as a catalyst to achieve the
deirs4ed degree of solidification .
The present study investigated the effect of different
methods for introducing modifiers and their composition in
the properties of nonfired periclase-carbon refractories on
phenol-formaldehyde resin. Periclase-carbon samples were
prepared from melted periclase of different fractions, graph
ite, antioxidant, liquid and powdered phenol-formaldehyde
resin, urotropin, and a modifier. The modifier was an organo
elemental compound or a sol based on it. Using different
fractions of periclase in molding provides the densest pack
ing, a high density, and good service parameters. The use of
phenol-formaldehyde resin decreases the concentration of
toxic emissions. The samples were heat-treated at 180°C.
The antioxidant in variant I was finely dispersed aluminum
and in variant II it was green SiC.
The aluminum additive at low temperatures not just re
stricts the oxidation of graphite, but also contributes to the
formation of a strong coke residue structure in the phe
nol-formaldehyde resin by binding oxygen adsorbed by the
powder . The author of  notes that when SiC is used as
the antioxidant, it reacts with CO
and forms SiO
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 47, No. 4, 2006
1083-4877/06/4704-0225 © 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Kharkov Polytechnic Institute, Kharkov, Ukraine.