Previous studies on wake flow visualization of live animals using DPIV have typically used low repetition rate lasers and 2D imaging. Repetition rates of around 10 Hz allow ~1 image per wingbeat in small birds and bats, and even fewer in insects. To accumulate data representing an entire wingbeat therefore requires the stitching-together of images captured from different wingbeats, and at different locations along the wing span for 3D-construction of wake topologies. A 200 Hz stereo DPIV system has recently been installed in the Lund University wind tunnel facility and the high-frame rate can be used to calculate all three velocity components in a cube, whose third dimension is constructed using the Taylor hypothesis. We studied two bat species differing in body size, Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris curasoa. Both species shed a tip vortex during the downstroke that was present well into the upstroke, and a vortex of opposite sign to the tip vortex was shed from the wing root. At the transition between upstroke/downstroke, a vortex loop was shed from each wing, inducing an upwash. Vorticity iso-surfaces confirmed the overall wake topology derived in a previous study. The measured dimensionless circulation, Γ/Uc, which is proportional to a wing section lift coefficient, suggests that unsteady phenomena play a role in the aerodynamics of both species.
Experiments in Fluids – Springer Journals
Published: Feb 28, 2009
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