Russian Journal of Applied Chemistry, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 5, pp. 747−750.
Pleiades Publishing, Ltd., 2012.
Original Russian Text © V.F. Komarov, P.I. Kalmykov, N.V. Boyarinova, V.F. Markov, 2012, published in Zhurnal Prikladnoi Khimii, 2012, Vol. 85, No. 5,
OF SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES
on Dissolution in Trinitrotoluene Melt
V. F. Komarov, P. I. Kalmykov, and N. V. Boyarinova
Institute of Problems of Chemical and Energy Technologies, Siberian Division,
Russian Academy of Sciences, Biisk, Russia
Received July 11, 2011
Abstract—The processes of hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20 ε-forms) dissolution in a trinitrotoluene melt
and of heat absorption on heating mixtures of variable composition in the temperature range 50–160°С were studied
by the complex method of refractometry and differential scanning calorimetry.
Highly dense energy-saturated ε-polymorph of hexani-
trohexaazaisowurtzitane (ε-CL-20) is considered in [1–3]
as a promising component of powerful energy-saturated
compositions. However attempts of its application cannot
be considered successful. It is connected with its solubil-
ity in organic substances, including trinitrotoluene (TNT)
[4, 5] contained in the compositions. Therewith it was
found that the viscosity of binary systems anomalously
increases, as the content of crystalline ε-CL-20 in TNT
melts increases, which is followed by a change in explo-
sive characteristics of the composition.
The aim of the work was to study ε-CL-20 solubility
in TNT melts by independent physicochemical methods.
Comparison of such data will make it possible to reveal
phase interactions of the solute with the solvent.
In the work we used industrial TNT additionally puri-
ﬁ ed by recrystallization and ε-CL-20 with average particle
size of 75 μm and polymorphic purity not less than 99.8%
produced by “ FNPTs Altai” Open Society .
Solubility was determined by the refractometry
method in a thermostatted cell supplied by a magnetic
stirrer, with monitoring by means of an optical micro-
scope. Table 1 contains heats of dissolution calculated
by Schroder equation 
= –——– ln —– , (1)
are temperatures of the determination,
– values of ε-CL-20 molar solubility in TNT.
Two solubility regions noticeably differing in dissolu-
tion heats were detected (Fig. 1).
If TNT melts in a binary system and is dissolved in
a ε-CL-20 melt on heating, it is possible to detect the
presence or absence of other processes by comparing
equivalence of heat consumptions (Table 1) for the both
Table 1. Weight С
and molar N
solubility of ε-CL-20 in
368 5.0 2.59 – –