The brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) was monitored in fish and sediment (from one lake) or suspended particulate matter (SPM; from five rivers) at European freshwater sites to study the effects of reduction measures implemented by HBCD producers and users in recent years. Bream (Abramis brama) were sampled annually between 2007 and 2013 in the rivers Götaälv/SE, Rhône/FR, Western Scheldt/NL, Mersey/UK, and Tees/UK and in Lake Belau/DE. Sediment/SPM was taken every second year between 2008 and 2014. HBCD was analyzed by LC/MS/MS allowing the determination of the alpha-, beta-, and gamma-diastereomers. For most sites, a decrease in ∑HBCD was observed in fish (e.g., in the Rhône and Western Scheldt by about 80 and 60%, respectively, with significantly decreasing trends, p < 0.01). In the Rhône, HBCD also decreased in SPM. At the sampling site in the Tees which was impacted by a former HBCD point source, fish HBCD levels decreased only after a major flood event in 2013. While fish data indicate a decline in environmental HBCD concentrations at most sites with diffuse emissions, SPM data were less conclusive. The European environmental quality standard for HBCD in fish of 167 μg kg−1 wet weight was met by all fish samples in 2013.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 17, 2017
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