Hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 and 3 in wastewater samples in Tunisia

Hepatitis E virus genotypes 1 and 3 in wastewater samples in Tunisia Hepatitis E represents an important public-health concern throughout the world. It is one of the leading causes of hepatitis in North Africa, Asia and the Middle East. In Tunisia, the true burden of HEV infection is still unknown. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of hepatitis E virus in Tunisia through the monitoring of urban sewage and to characterize the strains identified using molecular assays. A total of 150 sewage samples (raw and treated) were collected from three wastewater treatment plants located in the regions of Monastir and Mahdia and analyzed by nested RT-PCR using a qualitative assay targeting the methyltransferase gene in ORF1. Of these, only three samples (2 %) were found to be positive for HEV, one belonging to genotype 1 and two to genotype 3. The results of the present study indicate a low level of virus excretion among the Tunisian population. Both genotypes 1 and 3 are circulating in this country, however, possibly causing sporadic infections. The presence of the zoonotic genotype 3, known to be transmitted to humans mainly by swine and demonstrated in Tunisia for the first time in this work, raises the question of possible reservoir species, since pork products are not consumed in this country, pigs are not bred, and wild boar is not endemic. Further studies will be needed to gather information on the occurrence and diversity of HEV strains circulating among humans and animals in Tunisia, and on possible animal reservoirs. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of Virology Springer Journals
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Publisher
Springer Vienna
Copyright
Copyright © 2015 by Springer-Verlag Wien
Subject
Biomedicine; Virology; Medical Microbiology; Infectious Diseases
ISSN
0304-8608
eISSN
1432-8798
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00705-014-2251-8
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Hepatitis E represents an important public-health concern throughout the world. It is one of the leading causes of hepatitis in North Africa, Asia and the Middle East. In Tunisia, the true burden of HEV infection is still unknown. The objectives of the present study were to assess the occurrence of hepatitis E virus in Tunisia through the monitoring of urban sewage and to characterize the strains identified using molecular assays. A total of 150 sewage samples (raw and treated) were collected from three wastewater treatment plants located in the regions of Monastir and Mahdia and analyzed by nested RT-PCR using a qualitative assay targeting the methyltransferase gene in ORF1. Of these, only three samples (2 %) were found to be positive for HEV, one belonging to genotype 1 and two to genotype 3. The results of the present study indicate a low level of virus excretion among the Tunisian population. Both genotypes 1 and 3 are circulating in this country, however, possibly causing sporadic infections. The presence of the zoonotic genotype 3, known to be transmitted to humans mainly by swine and demonstrated in Tunisia for the first time in this work, raises the question of possible reservoir species, since pork products are not consumed in this country, pigs are not bred, and wild boar is not endemic. Further studies will be needed to gather information on the occurrence and diversity of HEV strains circulating among humans and animals in Tunisia, and on possible animal reservoirs.

Journal

Archives of VirologySpringer Journals

Published: Jan 1, 2015

References

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