HEATING OF A STEEL-POURING LADLE BOTTOM CONCRETE LINING
UNDER WORKSHOP CONDITIONS
V. Yu. Belousova
and A. V. Chernikov
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 1, pp. 27 – 33, January 2011.
Original article submitted December 2, 2010.
A review is provided for processes that occur within refractory concrete during hydration and heating. Theo-
retical data are referred to practical cases connected with concrete explosive cracking. On the basis of
physicochemical behavior of concrete with high-temperature heating and thermotechnical calculation it is
possible to correct a heating curve in order to prevent concrete lining breakage during warm-up.
Keywords: steel-pouring ladle bottom, concrete lining, drying and heating curves, concrete lining breakage,
Today many metallurgical enterprises install a mono-
lithic lining of refractory concrete in the bottom of
steel-pouring ladles, manufactured directly in a workshop. A
concrete bottom in 100 – 400 ton ladles for converter pro-
duction and an ESSW operates currently in many CIS enter-
prises. In the Ukraine for example, a concrete lining in a
steel-pouring ladle is used by the majority of enterprises.
Within Russia the tendency has also expanded recently.
The advantages of a monolithic lining compared with a
brick lining are numerous, and they are described in various
recent publications. Primarily concrete makes it possible to
obtain an “infinite” lining for operation, whose repair is ac-
complished by adding a new batch of repair material to a
worn surface, i.e., from one to several working bottom cam-
paigns, after which it is entirely broken up and lined anew.
The seamless nature of a monolithic lining also is con-
siderably important, since it excludes metal penetration deep
under the working lining. An accident for a bottom is a very
serious problem. Whereas breakthrough of metal, for exam-
ple in the lower zone of the slag belt leads to stoppage of a
unit for casing repair, breakthrough of steel into the bottom
of a ladle leads to loss of a considerable amount of metal and
The specific consumption of refractory concrete per ton
of steel is also an important property. Use of concrete in the
bottom of a ladle (initial installation and subsequent repair
with grouting in worn areas) promotes a considerable reduc-
tion in expenditure for performing lining work compared, for
example, with lining of aluminopericlase-carbon or periclase-
carbon refractory pieces. Thixotropic concretes, made by vi-
bration forming, are most widespread in CIS ladles. They are
readily mixed, they are easy to deliver, lay and heat.
Self-spreading concretes in the bottom of a ladle are rarely
used due to the high risk of explosive breakage.
One of the most complicated operations in lining a con-
crete bottom is drying and heating. An incorrect heating re-
gime is the main reason for unsuccessful introduction into
operation of a concrete lining due to explosive concrete
cracking, mainly occurring in the range 150 – 300°C.
PROCESSES DURING HARDENING
AND DEHYDRATION OF HIGH-ALUMINA CEMENT
The practice of using high quality concrete with an unex-
hausted service time has shown that explosive cracking oc-
curs mainly during lining heating if it held under workshop
conditions for an insufficiently long time . For concrete it
is important that hardening (hydration) is completed entirely.
This provides the maximum strength of semifinished product
during heating with respect to water vapor pressure merging
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 52, No. 1, May, 2011
1083-4877/11/05201-0023 © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Meierton Inzhiniring, Moscow, Russia.
Representative of Meierton Refractories, Dnepropetrovsk,