HEAT-RESISTANT DISPENSING NOZZLES
BASED ON ZIRCONIUM DIOXIDE FOR PROFILED CBCM.
PART 2. INDUSTRIAL APPROVAL OF DISPENSING NOZZLES
IN INTERMEDIATE LADLES OF A PROFILED CBCM
L. M. Aksel’rod,
S. A. Suvorov,
V. I. Rumyantsev,
N. Yu. Korableva,
A. S. Osmakov,
Ya. G. Dyatlova,
I. G. Maryasev,
S. I. Ivanitsa,
and M. G. Dzhundiet
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 4, pp. 73 – 77, April 2009.
Original article submitted March 3, 2009.
Technology is developed for manufacturing dispensing nozzles made of zirconium dioxide. Test-industrial
batches of objects, manufactured using separate and combined stabilization of ZrO
, are produced and tested
under industrial conditions. Dispensing nozzles differ in open porosity. The service behavior for the objects
developed and imported analogs is compared. The efficiency of using dispensing nozzles made of zirconium
dioxide with porosity less than 12% during operation in a CBCM is demonstrated.
Keywords: zirconium dioxide, dispensing nozzle, CBCM, industrial tests.
Dispensing nozzles based on zirconium dioxide, partly
stabilized with magnesium oxide, manufactured according
the technology developed,
have been tested in a six-stream
continuous billet casting machine (CBCM) of the electric
steel smelting workshop at OOO Nizhneserginsk Metallurgi-
cal Hardware Plant (NCMMZ). The manufacturing technol-
ogy includes preparation of a mix, containing partly stabi
, isostatic compaction of dispensing nozzles and
high-temperature firing. Two methods were used for prepar
ing partly stabilized ZrO
: the first is mixing the original
with a prescribed amount of stabilizer and
formation of a phase composition during firing of an object
(combined stabilization); the second is preliminary synthesis
of a cubic solid solution, preparation of powder of the re
quired fineness, followed by mixing with monoclinic ZrO
phase in a ratio providing a prescribed content of stabilizer
(separate stabilization). The chemical composition and prop-
erties of objects have been considered previously.
dispensing nozzle was mounted in the nesting unit made of
The aim of full-scale tests was to determine the life of
dispensing nozzles made of ZrO
under continuous pouring
conditions for different grades of steel, and also comparison
of the operating efficiency of objects with different ZrO
bilization and open porosity. In addition, the effect of using
refractory components on the stability of metal pouring was
Simultaneously, results were compared with the use of
dispensing nozzles from overseas firms.
The imported units
used currently satisfy the operating specifications, although
it is intended in future to organize production of dispensing
nozzles made of ZrO
especially as in Russia there is a large
Pouring was carried out using dispensing nozzles with a
channel diameter of 17.5 – 18.0 mm. The continuous process
lasted 18 h. Three batches of zirconium dioxide dispensing
nozzles were tested, prepared both with separate and with
stabilization. A sintering addition in an
amount of 0.2% was added to the composition of the third
batch. The test batches of dispensing nozzles differed in
microstructure and physicotechnical properties, including
open porosity indices. The first batch (15 objects) had open
porosity of 10.0 – 105%, the second (8 objects) had
12.0 – 12.5%, and the third (21 objects) had 4.8 – 5.3%.
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 50, No. 2, 2009
1083-4877/09/5002-0094 © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
OOO Gruppa Magnezit, Satka, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia.
St. Petersburg State Technological University (Technical Univer
sity), St. Petersburg, Russia.
OOO Virial, Satka, Chelyabinsk Region, Russia.
OOO Nizhneserginsk Metallurgical Hardware Plant, Nizhnie
Ser’gi, Sverdlovsk Region, Russia.
L. M. Akssel’rod, V. I. Rumyantsev, N. Yu. Korobleva, N. V. Be
lykh, and Ya. G. Dyatlova, “Highly resistant dispensing nozzles
based on zirconium dioxide for profiled CBCM. Part. 1. Structure
and physicomechanical properties of materials based on zirco
nium dioxide for producing CBCM dispensing nozzles,” Refrac
tories and Industrial Ceramics, 49, No. 2, 116 – 119 (2008).