HCN Channel C-Terminal Region Speeds Activation Rates Independently of Autoinhibition

HCN Channel C-Terminal Region Speeds Activation Rates Independently of Autoinhibition Hyperpolarization- and cyclic nucleotide-activated (HCN) channels contribute to rhythmic oscillations in excitable cells. They possess an intrinsic autoinhibition with a hyperpolarized V 1/2, which can be relieved by cAMP binding to the cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB) fold in the C-terminal region or by deletion of the CNB fold. We questioned whether V 1/2 shifts caused by altering the autoinhibitory CNB fold would be accompanied by parallel changes in activation rates. We used two-electrode voltage clamp on Xenopus oocytes to compare wildtype (WT) HCN2, a constitutively autoinhibited point mutant incapable of cAMP binding (HCN2 R591E), and derivatives with various C-terminal truncations. Activation V 1/2 and deactivation t 1/2 measurements confirmed that a truncated channel lacking the helix αC of the CNB fold (ΔαC) had autoinhibition comparable to HCN2 R591E; however, ΔαC activated approximately two-fold slower than HCN2 R591E over a 60-mV range of hyperpolarizations. A channel with a more drastic truncation deleting the entire CNB fold (ΔCNB) had similar V 1/2 values to HCN2 WT with endogenous cAMP bound, confirming autoinhibition relief, yet it surprisingly activated slower than the autoinhibited HCN2 R591E. Whereas CNB fold truncation slowed down voltage-dependent reaction steps, the voltage-independent closed-open equilibrium subject to autoinhibition in HCN2 was not rate-limiting. Chemically inhibiting formation of the endogenous lipid PIP2 hyperpolarized the V 1/2 of HCN2 WT but did not slow down activation to match ΔCNB rates. Our findings suggest a “quickening conformation” mechanism, requiring a full-length CNB that ensures fast rates for voltage-dependent steps during activation regardless of potentiation by cAMP or PIP2. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png The Journal of Membrane Biology Springer Journals

HCN Channel C-Terminal Region Speeds Activation Rates Independently of Autoinhibition

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/hcn-channel-c-terminal-region-speeds-activation-rates-independently-of-6HBZqQrd9L
Publisher
Springer US
Copyright
Copyright © 2015 by Springer Science+Business Media New York
Subject
Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Human Physiology
ISSN
0022-2631
eISSN
1432-1424
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00232-015-9816-7
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Hyperpolarization- and cyclic nucleotide-activated (HCN) channels contribute to rhythmic oscillations in excitable cells. They possess an intrinsic autoinhibition with a hyperpolarized V 1/2, which can be relieved by cAMP binding to the cyclic nucleotide binding (CNB) fold in the C-terminal region or by deletion of the CNB fold. We questioned whether V 1/2 shifts caused by altering the autoinhibitory CNB fold would be accompanied by parallel changes in activation rates. We used two-electrode voltage clamp on Xenopus oocytes to compare wildtype (WT) HCN2, a constitutively autoinhibited point mutant incapable of cAMP binding (HCN2 R591E), and derivatives with various C-terminal truncations. Activation V 1/2 and deactivation t 1/2 measurements confirmed that a truncated channel lacking the helix αC of the CNB fold (ΔαC) had autoinhibition comparable to HCN2 R591E; however, ΔαC activated approximately two-fold slower than HCN2 R591E over a 60-mV range of hyperpolarizations. A channel with a more drastic truncation deleting the entire CNB fold (ΔCNB) had similar V 1/2 values to HCN2 WT with endogenous cAMP bound, confirming autoinhibition relief, yet it surprisingly activated slower than the autoinhibited HCN2 R591E. Whereas CNB fold truncation slowed down voltage-dependent reaction steps, the voltage-independent closed-open equilibrium subject to autoinhibition in HCN2 was not rate-limiting. Chemically inhibiting formation of the endogenous lipid PIP2 hyperpolarized the V 1/2 of HCN2 WT but did not slow down activation to match ΔCNB rates. Our findings suggest a “quickening conformation” mechanism, requiring a full-length CNB that ensures fast rates for voltage-dependent steps during activation regardless of potentiation by cAMP or PIP2.

Journal

The Journal of Membrane BiologySpringer Journals

Published: Jun 30, 2015

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off