Gut Microbiota, Immune System, and Bone

Gut Microbiota, Immune System, and Bone The gut microbiota (GM) is the whole of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms living in our intestine. The GM–host interactions contribute to the maturation of the host immune system, modulating its systemic response. It is well documented that GM can interact with non-enteral cells such as immune cells, dendritic cells, and hepatocytes, producing molecules such as short-chain fatty acids, indole derivatives, polyamines, and secondary bile acid. The receptors for some of these molecules are expressed on immune cells, and modulate the differentiation of T effector and regulatory cells: this is the reason why dysbiosis is correlated with several autoimmune, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the close interplay between immune and bone cells, GM has a central role in maintaining bone health and influences bone turnover and density. GM can improve bone health also increasing calcium absorption and modulating the production of gut serotonin, a molecule that interacts with bone cells and has been suggested to act as a bone mass regulator. Thus, GM manipulation by consumption of antibiotics, changes in dietary habits, and the use of pre- and probiotics may affect bone health. This review summarizes evidences on the influence of GM on immune system and on bone turnover and density and how GM manipulation may influence bone health. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Calcified Tissue International Springer Journals

Gut Microbiota, Immune System, and Bone

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Publisher
Springer US
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Springer Science+Business Media, LLC
Subject
Life Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Endocrinology; Orthopedics; Cell Biology
ISSN
0171-967X
eISSN
1432-0827
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00223-017-0331-y
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The gut microbiota (GM) is the whole of commensal, symbiotic, and pathogenic microorganisms living in our intestine. The GM–host interactions contribute to the maturation of the host immune system, modulating its systemic response. It is well documented that GM can interact with non-enteral cells such as immune cells, dendritic cells, and hepatocytes, producing molecules such as short-chain fatty acids, indole derivatives, polyamines, and secondary bile acid. The receptors for some of these molecules are expressed on immune cells, and modulate the differentiation of T effector and regulatory cells: this is the reason why dysbiosis is correlated with several autoimmune, metabolic, and neurodegenerative diseases. Due to the close interplay between immune and bone cells, GM has a central role in maintaining bone health and influences bone turnover and density. GM can improve bone health also increasing calcium absorption and modulating the production of gut serotonin, a molecule that interacts with bone cells and has been suggested to act as a bone mass regulator. Thus, GM manipulation by consumption of antibiotics, changes in dietary habits, and the use of pre- and probiotics may affect bone health. This review summarizes evidences on the influence of GM on immune system and on bone turnover and density and how GM manipulation may influence bone health.

Journal

Calcified Tissue InternationalSpringer Journals

Published: Sep 30, 2017

References

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