Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Electronics (2018) 29:5009–5013
Growth and characterization of novel semi organic nonlinear optical
urea lead acetate single crystal by solution growth technique
· V. Ravisankar
· V. Chithambaram
Received: 17 October 2017 / Accepted: 19 December 2017 / Published online: 26 December 2017
© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2017
Urea lead acetate, a novel semi organic non linear optical crystal having dimensions 16 × 8 × 8 mm
has been synthesized
using slow evaporation technique. The lattice parameters for the grown crystals were determined using single crystal XRD.
The presence of functional groups for the grown crystals was conﬁrmed using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The
optical absorption studies show that the material has wide optical transparency in the entire visible region. The thermal
analysis studies indicate that the material possess optimum thermal stability. The mechanical properties of the grown crystals
have been studied using Vickers micro hardness tester for diﬀerent loads. The second harmonic generation was conﬁrmed
by Kurtz powder method and it is found to be 0.8 times more than that of KDP crystal.
In recent years, second order nonlinear optical materials
have attracted many researchers because of their potential
applications in various emerging technological ﬁelds [1–7].
Today, crystal growth technology has advanced rapidly
for the development of novel nonlinear optical materials
(NLO) for various applications such as optical switching,
frequency conversion and electro-optical modulation [8–13].
The organic NLO materials have large nonlinear optical
coeﬃcients compared to inorganic material, but their use
is impeded by their poor mechanical and thermal properties
and low laser damage threshold . The inorganic NLO
materials have excellent mechanical and thermal properties
but possess relatively modest optical nonlinearities due to
lack of extended π-electron delocalization . In view of
these problems, a new class of materials has been developed
from organic and inorganic complexes called semi organic
[14, 16]. In these materials, high optical nonlinearity of
pure organic compound is combined with the favorable
mechanical and thermal properties of inorganic materials
[14–18]. Semi organic crystals have large damage thresh-
old, wide transparency range, less deliquescence, excellent
nonlinear optical coeﬃcient, low angular sensitivity and
exceptional mechanical properties [19, 20].
In the present work, urea lead acetate (ULA), a desir-
able semi organic nonlinear optical crystal, has been grown
from aqueous solution by using slow evaporation technique.
The grown crystals were subjected to various characteriza-
tions such as Single crystal X-ray diﬀraction analysis, fou-
rier transform infrared (FTIR), optical absorption studies,
mechanical, thermal studies and nonlinear optical studies
were discussed in detail.
(AR grade) urea and lead acetate purchased from Merck
were used to synthesis the crystal. Triple distilled water was
used as solvent.
2.2 Crystal growth
Single crystals of ULA were grown by dissolving (AR
Grade) urea and lead acetate in the ratio 1:1 using triple
distilled water. Extreme care was taken to minimize the
thermal and mechanical disturbances to the supersaturated
* V. Chithambaram
Research and Development Centre, Bharathir University,
Adhiparasakthi College of Engineering, Kalavai, Chennai,
Department of Physics, Vel Tech High Tech Dr. Rangarajan
Dr. Sakunthala Engineering College, Chennai, India