Graphene was discovered in 2004 and has attracted intensive interests because of its unique mechanical, electric, ther- mal, optical, and structural properties, which makes graphene a potential candidate for various applications. Graphene is being used as a composite or filler material with metals, metal oxides, and polymers for potential advanced applications in solar cells, lithium-ion batteries, photocatalysis and sensing. These applications depend upon the distinctive properties of graphene, which in turn depend on the adopted synthetic approach. This article reviews the recent developments in synthesis of graphene and related composite materials. The synthesis of graphene through exfoliation, epitaxial growth and direct growth via carbon source, and modification approaches by covalent and noncovalent methodologies are discussed. Graphene- based metal and metal oxide composites for the purification of wastewater using photolytic process are also presented. Keywords Graphene · Synthesis · Modifications · Graphene composites · Environmental and energy applications Introduction localised sigma bonds with three nearest neighbour atoms are arranged in a honeycomb lattice. This structure of gra- With the discovery of graphene by Novoselov et al. (2004), phene is responsible for its high specific surface area and this new material has attracted tremendous attention world- electrical conductivity as well as its other exceptional prop- wide due to its potential
Environmental Chemistry Letters – Springer Journals
Published: May 29, 2018
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