Granulomas in the gastrointestinal tract: deciphering the Pandora’s box

Granulomas in the gastrointestinal tract: deciphering the Pandora’s box Granulomas are organised collection of activated histiocytes induced by a persistent antigen stimulus. A wide variety of antigens encountered by the gastrointestinal tract are of this nature and hence the resulting granulomatous inflammation represents a tissue reaction pattern. The potential causes can be broadly classified as infections or non-infectious immune reactions. There is also a group where a cause is never identified. Granulomas may be of varying morphological appearance, most commonly epithelioid, foreign body type, suppurative and necrotizing. This may provide a clue as to the aetiology; however, in most cases, the cause requires further inquiry. Pathologists may need to cut deeper levels to look for foreign material and apply special stains to look for microorganisms. Pathologists also need to be certain that the process is a true granuloma and not a mimic. The site of occurrence in the gastrointestinal tract and the clinical setting is often paramount in establishing the aetiology. For instance, infections are more likely the cause in developing countries or when there is immunosuppression. Similarly, granulomas in the stomach are usually due to Crohn’s disease; however, it is only rarely the cause of granulomas isolated to the appendix. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Virchows Archiv Springer Journals

Granulomas in the gastrointestinal tract: deciphering the Pandora’s box

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Publisher
Springer Berlin Heidelberg
Copyright
Copyright © 2017 by Springer-Verlag GmbH Deutschland
Subject
Medicine & Public Health; Pathology
ISSN
0945-6317
eISSN
1432-2307
D.O.I.
10.1007/s00428-017-2210-3
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Granulomas are organised collection of activated histiocytes induced by a persistent antigen stimulus. A wide variety of antigens encountered by the gastrointestinal tract are of this nature and hence the resulting granulomatous inflammation represents a tissue reaction pattern. The potential causes can be broadly classified as infections or non-infectious immune reactions. There is also a group where a cause is never identified. Granulomas may be of varying morphological appearance, most commonly epithelioid, foreign body type, suppurative and necrotizing. This may provide a clue as to the aetiology; however, in most cases, the cause requires further inquiry. Pathologists may need to cut deeper levels to look for foreign material and apply special stains to look for microorganisms. Pathologists also need to be certain that the process is a true granuloma and not a mimic. The site of occurrence in the gastrointestinal tract and the clinical setting is often paramount in establishing the aetiology. For instance, infections are more likely the cause in developing countries or when there is immunosuppression. Similarly, granulomas in the stomach are usually due to Crohn’s disease; however, it is only rarely the cause of granulomas isolated to the appendix.

Journal

Virchows ArchivSpringer Journals

Published: Aug 4, 2017

References

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