GRANULAR-STRUCTURE CHROMIUM-BEARING REFRACTORIES:
PROPERTIES AND USES
B. L. Krasnyi,
V. P. Tarasovskii,
A. B. Krasnyi,
and A. L. Kuteinikova
Translated from Novye Ogneupory, No. 1, pp. 55 – 61, January, 2008.
Original article submitted April 10, 2007.
Results are presented on the corrosion resistance of chromium-bearing refractories of granular structure acted
on by corrosive molten slags, metals, and glasses. It is possible to recommend these refractories to customers
for particular conditions of use. Chromium-bearing refractories increase the working lives of furnaces
Innovative technologies are being widely introduced in
ferrous and nonferrous metallurgy, the chemical industry, the
petroleum industry, the building industry, and other such,
which is related to a considerable extent to intensify high-
temperature processes in furnaces. This greatly increases the
importance of refractory materials that must provide
prolonged operation .
About two-thirds of refractory materials are damaged by
chemical interaction with corrosive media, so particular
attention attaches to research to improve existing refractory
materials and produce new ones for use at high temperatures
subject to the action of corrosive liquids: slags, fluxes,
glasses, glazes, and enamels .
The Bakor Company has for more than 15 years deve
loped and produced refractory materials and components
providing prolonged service in important lining elements .
The materials most resistant to various corrosive media are
highly refractory ceramic ones containing chromium oxide
[4, 5]. Research at the company has provided a technology
for making various chromium-bearing refractory materials of
granular structure resistant to corrosive melts and of thermal
resistance elevated by comparison with dense materials .
Figure 1 shows the scheme for producing them. Table 1 gives
the physicochemical properties of these chromium-bearing
The research included the reactions of corrosive melts of
various types with the chromium-bearing refractories of
granular structure developed by the company. The crucible
method  was applied to the corrosion resistance. This
method is a static one for testing materials for corrosion
resistance in corrosive liquids, which quite fully reproduces
the corrosion conditions for refractory materials in furnaces.
The crucible method also gives a clear idea of the corrosion
resistance at the level of the liquid under conditions of
The test specimens were made as cylinders (diameter and
height 60 mm) or as cubes of edge 60 mm with recesses of
diameter 22 mm and depth 35 – 40 mm. The crucibles
contain materials for making liquids. The heat treatment was
in a muffle furnace with chromite-lanthanum heaters at
temperatures corresponding to the actual working conditions.
After test, the specimens were sectioned parallel to the axis
of the hole and photographed. To examine the damage
mechanisms and phase transformations we performed micro
Refractories and Industrial Ceramics Vol. 49, No. 1, 2008
1083-4877/08/4901-0057 © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.
Bakor Scientific and Technical Center Ltd., Russia.
Fig. 1. Scheme for making granular-structure chromium-bearing