Grande retrotransposons contain an accessory gene in the unusually long 3′-internal region that encodes a nuclear protein transcribed from its own promoter

Grande retrotransposons contain an accessory gene in the unusually long 3′-internal region that... LTR retrotransposons are major components of plant genomes playing important roles in the evolution of their host genomes, for example, generating new genes or providing new promoters to existing genes. The Grande family of retrotransposons is present in Zea species and is characterized by an unusually long internal region due to the presence of a 7-kbp region between the gag-pol coding region and the 3′LTR. We demonstrate here that such unusual sequence is present in the great majority of Grande copies in maize genome. This region contains a gene, gene23, which is transcribed from its own promoter in antisense orientation to the gag-pol genes. The expression of gene23 is ubiquitous, and its promoter contains all the putative consensus sequences typical of eukaryotic promoters, being able to direct GUS expression in different plant species and organs. The coding region of gene23 is conserved in most Grande copies and encodes a protein rich in glycine, serine, and acidic amino acids that shows no significant similarity with any protein of known function. Nevertheless, the C- and N-terminal parts are rich in basic amino acids, and these are interspersed with other amino acids in its C-terminus, compatible with a putative DNA-binding function. It contains a nuclear localization signal KRKR motif in the N-terminus. Fusions to GFP demonstrate that this protein localizes in the nucleus. We discuss the possible origin of gene23 and the potential function of its encoded protein. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Plant Molecular Biology Springer Journals

Grande retrotransposons contain an accessory gene in the unusually long 3′-internal region that encodes a nuclear protein transcribed from its own promoter

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Publisher
Springer Netherlands
Copyright
Copyright © 2013 by Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht
Subject
Life Sciences; Plant Sciences; Biochemistry, general; Plant Pathology
ISSN
0167-4412
eISSN
1573-5028
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11103-013-0019-2
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

LTR retrotransposons are major components of plant genomes playing important roles in the evolution of their host genomes, for example, generating new genes or providing new promoters to existing genes. The Grande family of retrotransposons is present in Zea species and is characterized by an unusually long internal region due to the presence of a 7-kbp region between the gag-pol coding region and the 3′LTR. We demonstrate here that such unusual sequence is present in the great majority of Grande copies in maize genome. This region contains a gene, gene23, which is transcribed from its own promoter in antisense orientation to the gag-pol genes. The expression of gene23 is ubiquitous, and its promoter contains all the putative consensus sequences typical of eukaryotic promoters, being able to direct GUS expression in different plant species and organs. The coding region of gene23 is conserved in most Grande copies and encodes a protein rich in glycine, serine, and acidic amino acids that shows no significant similarity with any protein of known function. Nevertheless, the C- and N-terminal parts are rich in basic amino acids, and these are interspersed with other amino acids in its C-terminus, compatible with a putative DNA-binding function. It contains a nuclear localization signal KRKR motif in the N-terminus. Fusions to GFP demonstrate that this protein localizes in the nucleus. We discuss the possible origin of gene23 and the potential function of its encoded protein.

Journal

Plant Molecular BiologySpringer Journals

Published: Feb 20, 2013

References

  • Chromosome localization and characterization of a family of long repetitive DNA elements from the genus Zea
    Aledo, R; Raz, R; Monfort, A; Vicient, CM; Puigdomenech, P; Martinez-Izquierdo, JA
  • Host factors that affect Ty3 retrotransposition in Saccharomyces cerevisiae
    Aye, M; Irwin, B; Beliakova-Bethell, N; Chen, E; Garrus, J; Sandmeyer, S
  • Transposable elements, gene creation and genome rearrangement in flowering plants
    Bennetzen, JL
  • Cellular oncogenes and retroviruses
    Bishop, JM
  • Nuclear localization signals (NLS)
    Boulikas, T
  • Lentiviral nuclear import: a complex interplay between virus and host
    Rijck, J; Vandekerckhove, L; Christ, F; Debyser, Z
  • Bs1, a new chimeric gene formed by retrotransposon-mediated exon shuffling in maize
    Elrouby, N; Bureau, TE
  • HIV-1: fifteen proteins and an RNA
    Frankel, AD; Young, JA
  • Plant chromosomal high mobility group (HMG) proteins
    Grasser, KD
  • Speciation and domestication in maize and its wild relatives: evidence from the globulin-1 gene
    Hilton, H; Gaut, BS

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