The purpose of this review is to provide a global perspective on Oncorhynchus salmonine introductions and put-and-take fisheries based on modern stocking programs, with special emphasis on freshwater ecosystems. We survey the global introductions of nine selected salmonines of the genus Oncorhynchus: golden trout, cutthroat trout, pink salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, masu/cherry salmon, rainbow trout/steelhead, sockeye salmon/kokanee, and chinook salmon. The information is organized on a geographical basis by continent, and then by species and chronology. Two different objectives and associated definitions of ‘success’ for introductions are distinguished: (a) seed introduction: release of individuals with the purpose of creating a wild-reproducing, self-sustaining population; and (b) put-and-take introduction: release of individuals with the purpose of maintaining some level of wild population abundance, regardless of wild reproduction. We identify four major phenomena regarding global salmonine introductions: (1) general inadequacy of documentation regarding introductions; (2) a fundamental disconnect between management actions and ecological consequences of introductions; (3) the importance of global climate change on success of previous and future introductions; and (4) the significance of aquaculture as a key uncertainty in accidental introductions. We conclude this review with a recognition of the need to terminate ongoing stocking programs for introduced salmonines worldwide.
Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries – Springer Journals
Published: Dec 7, 2007
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