Global introductions of salmon and trout in the genus Oncorhynchus: 1870–2007

Global introductions of salmon and trout in the genus Oncorhynchus: 1870–2007 The purpose of this review is to provide a global perspective on Oncorhynchus salmonine introductions and put-and-take fisheries based on modern stocking programs, with special emphasis on freshwater ecosystems. We survey the global introductions of nine selected salmonines of the genus Oncorhynchus: golden trout, cutthroat trout, pink salmon, chum salmon, coho salmon, masu/cherry salmon, rainbow trout/steelhead, sockeye salmon/kokanee, and chinook salmon. The information is organized on a geographical basis by continent, and then by species and chronology. Two different objectives and associated definitions of ‘success’ for introductions are distinguished: (a) seed introduction: release of individuals with the purpose of creating a wild-reproducing, self-sustaining population; and (b) put-and-take introduction: release of individuals with the purpose of maintaining some level of wild population abundance, regardless of wild reproduction. We identify four major phenomena regarding global salmonine introductions: (1) general inadequacy of documentation regarding introductions; (2) a fundamental disconnect between management actions and ecological consequences of introductions; (3) the importance of global climate change on success of previous and future introductions; and (4) the significance of aquaculture as a key uncertainty in accidental introductions. We conclude this review with a recognition of the need to terminate ongoing stocking programs for introduced salmonines worldwide. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries Springer Journals

Global introductions of salmon and trout in the genus Oncorhynchus: 1870–2007

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Springer Netherlands
Copyright © 2007 by Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Life Sciences; Zoology ; Freshwater & Marine Ecology
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