Restoration of heritage sites from their remains is a challenging task, as the required geospatial and geophysical data are generally incomplete and complex in nature. These data are typically collected using multiple disciplines/techniques such as GIS, remote sensing, photogrammetry and ground penetration radar (GPR), to record and document factual and accurate information. This research proposes an integrated data collection and management practice towards achieving a structured archaeological documentation process with minimal or no damage to the existing structure. The process includes the integration of archaeological information from aerial stereo photographs, satellite images, global positioning systems (GPS) and GPR profiles. This approach is demonstrated through a fourth century ancient Greco-Roman city in Jordan (Umm Qais). Various abstract levels of details have been generated including orthophoto, digital elevation model (DEM) and vector site layout of buildings and infrastructure. Further, the GPR analysis shows the existence of shallow discontinuous and shifted buried walls, which indicates that the site was affected by a possible earthquake during the historical period. The developed 3D geospatial archaeological database for Umm Qais City can be utilised for various purposes such as archaeological documentation, conservation, monitoring, restoration, tourism and urban planning. The study also outlines the schedule of various processes and the cost estimate associated with the development of the integrated 3D geospatial archaeological database.
Applied Geomatics – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 2, 2018
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