Genomics and Evolution of Cellular Organelles

Genomics and Evolution of Cellular Organelles The structure, functions, and evolution of cellular organelles are reviewed. The mitochondrial genomes of eukaryotes differ considerably in size and structural organization mainly due to the length variation in noncoding regions and the presence of introns. The mitochondrial genomes of angiosperms are the largest and most complicated. Gene content in eukaryotic mitochondrial genomes is similar. They usually encode all types of rRNA, a complete or partial complement of tRNA, and a limited number of proteins essential for mitochondrial functions. In all eukaryotes studied, mitochondrial genomes code for two highly hydrophobic proteins involved in respiration, cytochrome b and subunit 1 of cytochrome oxidase. Genome structure and gene content in plastids, mainly in higher plant chloroplasts, are highly conserved. Plastid genomes of algae are more variable in gene composition and contain several unique genes absent in the chloroplast DNA of higher plants. Plastid genomes encode proteins involved in transcription and translation, as well as proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus. Both types of cellular organelles are supposed to be of endosymbiotic origin. Modern plastids originate from a cyanobacterial ancestor. Alpha-proteobacteria, especially the most mitochondrion-like rickettsia, gave rise to mitochondria. The origin of plastids of higher plants and green algae as a result of primary endo-symbiosis and that of other algal lineages by secondary endosymbiosis are briefly discussed. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Russian Journal of Genetics Springer Journals

Genomics and Evolution of Cellular Organelles

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Publisher
Springer Journals
Copyright
Copyright © 2005 by MAIK "Nauka/Interperiodica"
Subject
Biomedicine; Microbial Genetics and Genomics; Animal Genetics and Genomics; Human Genetics
ISSN
1022-7954
eISSN
1608-3369
D.O.I.
10.1007/s11177-005-0187-5
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

The structure, functions, and evolution of cellular organelles are reviewed. The mitochondrial genomes of eukaryotes differ considerably in size and structural organization mainly due to the length variation in noncoding regions and the presence of introns. The mitochondrial genomes of angiosperms are the largest and most complicated. Gene content in eukaryotic mitochondrial genomes is similar. They usually encode all types of rRNA, a complete or partial complement of tRNA, and a limited number of proteins essential for mitochondrial functions. In all eukaryotes studied, mitochondrial genomes code for two highly hydrophobic proteins involved in respiration, cytochrome b and subunit 1 of cytochrome oxidase. Genome structure and gene content in plastids, mainly in higher plant chloroplasts, are highly conserved. Plastid genomes of algae are more variable in gene composition and contain several unique genes absent in the chloroplast DNA of higher plants. Plastid genomes encode proteins involved in transcription and translation, as well as proteins of the photosynthetic apparatus. Both types of cellular organelles are supposed to be of endosymbiotic origin. Modern plastids originate from a cyanobacterial ancestor. Alpha-proteobacteria, especially the most mitochondrion-like rickettsia, gave rise to mitochondria. The origin of plastids of higher plants and green algae as a result of primary endo-symbiosis and that of other algal lineages by secondary endosymbiosis are briefly discussed.

Journal

Russian Journal of GeneticsSpringer Journals

Published: Oct 10, 2005

References

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