ANNOTATED SEQUENCE RECORD
Genomic characterization of coxsackievirus type A24 strains
associated with acute ﬂaccid paralysis and rarely identiﬁed
Shobha D. Chitambar
Received: 1 February 2014 / Accepted: 22 May 2014 / Published online: 1 August 2014
Ó Springer-Verlag Wien 2014
Abstract The full-length genome sequence analysis of
four coxsackievirus A24 (CV-A24) strains, detected in
three paralytic and one post-asthmatic paralytic (Hopkins
syndrome) cases, is reported here for the ﬁrst time. A
phylogenetic tree constructed on the basis of entire gen-
omes displayed topology similar to that of the full-VP1
tree, classifying the study strains in genogroup CV-
A24vGIV along with their temporal counterparts in strains
from non-paralytic cases. The strains of the study formed a
single genetic cluster C4 within CV-A24vGIV and showed
3.5–19.4 % nucleotide sequence divergence, with 2-4
novel nucleotide mutations in the 5
NCR and 3-8 unique
amino acid substitutions in the polyprotein, with respect to
the CV-A24 strains associated with non-paralytic cases.
Among the nucleotide mutations, A299U was identiﬁed in
NCRs of all of the study strains. CV-A24v strains
of the same genogroup with few genomic variations
but different disease manifestations need to be explored
to investigate the molecular basis of evolution of
Coxsackievirus type A24 (CV-A24) belongs to the species
Enterovirus C, genus Enterovirus, family Picornaviridae.
The virus is a non-enveloped icosahedral particle,
27–30 nm in diameter, that contains a positive-sense sin-
gle-stranded RNA molecule . This infectious agent
spreads mainly through direct contact with mucosal
secretions and by the faecal-oral route , and infre-
quently, via the respiratory route .
An antigenic variant of CV-A24 (CV-A24v) is known to
cause respiratory disturbances  and outbreaks of acute
hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (AHC) [2, 4–6] in humans.
Occasionally, this enterovirus (EV) type has also been
described in association with a serious manifestation like
acute ﬂaccid paralysis (AFP) [7–9].
The severity of the pathological conditions associated
with EV infections has been described to be due in part to
immune status of the host, the initial infectious dose, and
the viral genetics or quasispecies diversity in the viral
population. However, among these, analysis of the viral
genome has been considered crucial for understanding the
issue of disease causation .
The diversity in disease manifestations associated with
some of the strains of the same EV type has been proposed
to be attributable to profound biological effects of some
mutations that do not affect the phylogenetic positions of
the virus strains . Since there are no data on the genetic
make-up of CV-A24 strains associated with paralytic
manifestations, this study was aimed at sequencing and
analyzing the complete genomes of such strains.
Four CV-A24 strains identiﬁed earlier  on the basis
of partial VP1 gene sequences were included in the study.
INDNIV1040633LV639/Bangalore/India (LV639), one of
the four strains was detected in a stool specimen collected
Electronic supplementary material The online version of this
article (doi:10.1007/s00705-014-2129-9) contains supplementary
material, which is available to authorized users.
R. Laxmivandana Á S. D. Chitambar (&)
Enteric Viruses Group, National Institute of Virology, 20-A, Dr
Ambedkar Road, Pune 411 001, Maharashtra, India
National Institute of Virology, Bangalore-Unit, Bangalore, India
Department of Pediatrics, M. V. Jairam Medical College and
Research Centre, Hosakote, Bangalore, India
Arch Virol (2014) 159:3125–3129