Genomic analysis of the mouse protamine 1, protamine 2, and transition protein 2 gene cluster reveals hypermethylation in expressing cells

Genomic analysis of the mouse protamine 1, protamine 2, and transition protein 2 gene cluster... To understand the role of chromatin structure in the expression of the mouse protamine 1, protamine 2, and transition protein 2 genes during spermatogenesis, we have examined the genomic organization of this cluster of “haploid-specific” genes. As seen in the human genome, protamine 2, transition protein 2, and approximately 2.8 kb of a CpG island, hereafter called CpG island-dTP2, were clustered in a small region. Methylation analyses of this region have demonstrated that i) unlike most other tissue-specific genes, the protamine 1, protamine 2, and transition protein 2 genes were located in a large methylated domain in round spermatids, the cell type where they are transcribed, ii) the protamine 1 gene was only partially methylated in somatic cells and in testes from 7-day-old mice, and iii) the approximately 2 kb upstream and downstream of the CpG island-dTP2 were only partially methylated in somatic tissues. DNase I analysis revealed the presence of at least five strong DNase I hypersensitive sites over the CpG island-dTP2 in somatic tissues, but not in germ cells, and sequence analysis indicated that the CpG island-dTP2 is homologous to a CpG island located approximately 10.6 kb downstream of the human transition protein 2 gene. Although the nature of a CpG island-dTP2 and the function of a CpG island-dTP2-containing somatic tissue-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites in close proximity to the germ cell-specific gene cluster are unclear, the “open” chromatin structure of the CpG island-dTP2 may be responsible for the partial methylation pattern of the flanking sequences including the transition protein 2 gene in somatic tissues. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Mammalian Genome Springer Journals

Genomic analysis of the mouse protamine 1, protamine 2, and transition protein 2 gene cluster reveals hypermethylation in expressing cells

Loading next page...
 
/lp/springer_journal/genomic-analysis-of-the-mouse-protamine-1-protamine-2-and-transition-0drzf4PFYo
Publisher
Springer-Verlag
Copyright
Copyright © 1997 by Springer-Verlag
Subject
Life Sciences; Cell Biology; Anatomy; Zoology
ISSN
0938-8990
eISSN
1432-1777
D.O.I.
10.1007/s003359900431
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

To understand the role of chromatin structure in the expression of the mouse protamine 1, protamine 2, and transition protein 2 genes during spermatogenesis, we have examined the genomic organization of this cluster of “haploid-specific” genes. As seen in the human genome, protamine 2, transition protein 2, and approximately 2.8 kb of a CpG island, hereafter called CpG island-dTP2, were clustered in a small region. Methylation analyses of this region have demonstrated that i) unlike most other tissue-specific genes, the protamine 1, protamine 2, and transition protein 2 genes were located in a large methylated domain in round spermatids, the cell type where they are transcribed, ii) the protamine 1 gene was only partially methylated in somatic cells and in testes from 7-day-old mice, and iii) the approximately 2 kb upstream and downstream of the CpG island-dTP2 were only partially methylated in somatic tissues. DNase I analysis revealed the presence of at least five strong DNase I hypersensitive sites over the CpG island-dTP2 in somatic tissues, but not in germ cells, and sequence analysis indicated that the CpG island-dTP2 is homologous to a CpG island located approximately 10.6 kb downstream of the human transition protein 2 gene. Although the nature of a CpG island-dTP2 and the function of a CpG island-dTP2-containing somatic tissue-specific DNase I hypersensitive sites in close proximity to the germ cell-specific gene cluster are unclear, the “open” chromatin structure of the CpG island-dTP2 may be responsible for the partial methylation pattern of the flanking sequences including the transition protein 2 gene in somatic tissues.

Journal

Mammalian GenomeSpringer Journals

Published: Mar 21, 2009

References

You’re reading a free preview. Subscribe to read the entire article.


DeepDyve is your
personal research library

It’s your single place to instantly
discover and read the research
that matters to you.

Enjoy affordable access to
over 18 million articles from more than
15,000 peer-reviewed journals.

All for just $49/month

Explore the DeepDyve Library

Search

Query the DeepDyve database, plus search all of PubMed and Google Scholar seamlessly

Organize

Save any article or search result from DeepDyve, PubMed, and Google Scholar... all in one place.

Access

Get unlimited, online access to over 18 million full-text articles from more than 15,000 scientific journals.

Your journals are on DeepDyve

Read from thousands of the leading scholarly journals from SpringerNature, Elsevier, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford University Press and more.

All the latest content is available, no embargo periods.

See the journals in your area

DeepDyve

Freelancer

DeepDyve

Pro

Price

FREE

$49/month
$360/year

Save searches from
Google Scholar,
PubMed

Create lists to
organize your research

Export lists, citations

Read DeepDyve articles

Abstract access only

Unlimited access to over
18 million full-text articles

Print

20 pages / month

PDF Discount

20% off