The 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductases (OPRs) are enzymes that catalyze the reduction of double bonds adjacent to an oxo group in α,β-unsaturated aldehydes or ketones. Some of them have very high substrate specificity and are part of the octadecanoid pathway which convert linolenic acid to the phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA). Sequencing and analysis of ESTs and genomic sequences from available private and public databases revealed that the maize genome encodes eight OPR genes. Southern blot analysis and mapping of individual OPR genes to maize chromosomes using oat maize chromosome addition lines provides independent confirmation of this number of OPR genes in maize. A survey of massively parallel signature sequencing (MPSS) assays revealed that transcripts of each OPR gene accumulate differentially in diverse organs of maize plants suggesting distinct biological functions. Similarly, RNA blot analysis revealed that distinct OPR genes are differentially regulated in response to stress hormones, wounding or pathogen infection. ZmOPR1 and/or ZmOPR2 appear to function in defense responses to pathogens because they are transiently induced by salicylic acid (SA), chitooligosaccharides, and by infection with Cochliobolus carbonum, Cochliobolus heterostrophus and Fusarium verticillioides, but not by wounding. In contrast to these two genes, transcript levels of ZmOPR6 and ZmOPR7 and/or ZmOPR8 are highly induced by wounding or treatments with the wound-associated signaling molecules JA, ethylene and abscisic acid. However, accumulation of ZmOPR6 and ZmOPR7/8 mRNAs was not upregulated by SA treatments or by pathogen infection suggesting specific involvement in the wound-induced defense responses. None of the treatments induced transcripts of ZmOPR3, 4, or 5.
Plant Molecular Biology – Springer Journals
Published: Jun 17, 2005
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