1022-7954/05/4103- © 2005 Pleiades Publishing, Inc.
Russian Journal of Genetics, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2005, pp. 275–283. Translated from Genetika, Vol. 41, No. 3, 2005, pp. 356–365.
Original Russian Text Copyright © 2005 by Korshikov, N. Pirko, Ya. Pirko.
Owing to the intensive development of biochemical
population genetics of coniferous plants in the last
quarter of the 20th century, the naturally formed rela-
tionships between the intrapopulation and interpopula-
tion components of genetic variation were established in
many species, and the balance between integration and
differentiation of their gene pools was analyzed [1, 2].
These studies are of special interest for populations
located at the boundary of the species range, where het-
erogeneity of natural climatic and phytocenotic condi-
tions, increased selection, isolation, limited migration,
and gene drift may promote high local differentiation of
the population systems. However, peripheral (mar-
ginal) populations of conifers often show a trend
toward lower variability than that in central populations
occupying localities of abundance of the species . It
was suggested to distinguish two types of marginal
populations: marginal in the geographical sense and
ecologically marginal, i.e., inhabiting the edge of the
species range and experiencing adverse environmental
The eastern boundary of the range of silver ﬁr
an important European forest-forming species,
passes through the Ukrainian Carpathians.
colonized this region after the glacial period, later than
the other local forest-forming tree species. Here,
does not form a separate altitudinal belt and pure natu-
ral tree stands; this species grows in mixed forests
L. In places of massive spread,
produces three major subformations: Fageto–
Abieta (65% of the formation area), Piceeto–Fageto–
Abieta (25%), and Querceto–Fageto–Abieta (10%) .
During the last 150 to 200 years, silver ﬁr forests in the
Carpathian region have been intensely exploited com-
mercially, which led to a substantial reduction in their
area [5, 6].
Studies of intraspeciﬁc genetic variation in
were fragmentary and did not yield an integral picture
of the genetic structure, subdivision, and differentiation
of this species [7–14], including its marginal popula-
tions from the Ukrainian Carpathians . Investiga-
tion of parameters of population genetic variability of
species is essential not only for understanding the struc-
tural organization of their population systems, but also
for developing programs for their conservation, repro-
duction, and rational management, particularly in the
parts of the range subjected to the effects of critical fac-
tors of various origins [1, 3, 15].
The aim of the present work was studying the genetic
structure, subdivision, and differentiation of marginal
populations from the Ukrainian Carpathians as
inferred from variability of 24 allozyme loci.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
We examined eight natural populations of
from the Ukrainian Carpathians (Fig. 1). All of these
populations are located on protected or preserved terri-
tories. During independent expeditions in 2001–2002,
full cones were collected from 315 adult
of oldest age. The designations of the populations, their
altitude above sea level, the mean age of the plants and
their numbers in the samples, as well as
sentativity in the tree stands are presented in Table 1.
To determine plant genotypes, we used as markers
isozymes of the following 11 enzyme systems: alcohol
dehydrogenase (ADH, E.C. 18.104.22.168), aspartate ami-
notransferase (GOT, E.C. 22.214.171.124), glutamate dehydroge-
nase (GDH, E.C. 126.96.36.199), diaphorase (DIA, E.C. 188.8.131.52),
Genetic Variation and Differentiation
Mill. Populations from Ukrainian Carpathians
I. I. Korshikov, N. N. Pirko, and Ya. V. Pirko
Donetsk Botanical Garden, National Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Donetsk, 83059 Ukraine;
fax: (38-0622) 94-61-57; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received April 15, 2004; in ﬁnal form, September 28, 2004
—Using electrophoretic analysis of 11 enzyme systems, we studied the genetic structure and differ-
entiation of eight natural populations of silver ﬁr
Mill. in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Of 24 isozyme
loci identiﬁed, 66.8% proved to be polymorphic. The mean numbers of alleles and genotypes per locus in the
populations were respectively 3.1 and 4.5. Each
tree was on average heterozygous at 15.9% of genes.
In six populations, the genotypic distribution for all of the loci examined corresponded to Hardy–Weinberg pro-
portions. The populations studied had low levels of subdivision (
) and differentiation.
Nei’s genetic distances between the
populations in the region ranged from 0.002 to 0.009, being on aver-