ISSN 10227954, Russian Journal of Genetics, 2016, Vol. 52, No. 4, pp. 391–397. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2016.
Original Russian Text © S.J. Salayeva, J.M. Ojaghi, A.N. Pashayeva, V.I. Izzatullayeva, E.M. Akhundova, Z.I. Akperov, 2016, published in Genetika, 2016, Vol. 52, No. 4,
L.), represented by
numerous table and raisin cultivars used in the pro
duction of juices, canned food, medicines, and various
fermentation products, as well as grown for ornamental
purposes, holds a special place in the world market .
The long history of grapevine growing, in particu
lar, the method of its propagation by cuttings, led to
the inability to recognize many biotypes and even cul
tivars or to identify them under different names in dif
ferent regions of the world .
Beginning from the late 19th century, researchers,
including De Candolle , Vavilov [4, 5], Negrul ,
Zhukovsky [7, 8], Olmo , Zohary , Hopf ,
and Constantini , pointed out that the region
between the Black Sea, Caucasus, and Caspian Sea
possibly was the primary center of origin of grapevine.
The existence of landraces (
D.C.) adapted to local conditions and the wide distri
bution of wild forms (
represented by varieties with typical hairy (var.
Negr.) and hairless leaves (var.
Negr.) , as
well as historical data and the results of archaeological
excavations, showed that Azerbaijan was one of the
centers of origin of grapevine (
L.) [13, 14].
Common to the Republic of Azerbaijan, wild grape
varieties that differ morphologically and are resistant
to adverse environmental conditions, as well as high
quality table and wine cultivars suitable for local use,
long storage, handling, and drying, should be pre
served for utilization as potential source of valuable
genetic diversity. The maintenance and further effec
tive use of the existing genetic variability in the first
place requires the assessment of its level.
Identification of grapevine cultivars is traditionally
based on ampelography, which provides the analysis
and comparison of their morphological characteris
tics. However, visual identification, for example, of
closely related cultivars, clones, rootstocks, planting
material, or hybrid forms at the juvenile stage of devel
opment is very difficult.
Molecular marker technology, the use of which is
now widespread, determining the phylogenetic rela
tionships between the grapevine accessions belonging
Genetic Diversity of
L. in Azerbaijan
S. J. Salayeva
, J. M. Ojaghi
, A. N. Pashayeva
V. I. Izzatullayeva
, E. M. Akhundova
, and Z. I. Akperov
Department of Genetics and Evolution Theory, Baku State University, Baku, AZ1148 Azerbaijan
Genetic Resources Institute, Azerbaijan National Academy of Sciences, Baku, AZ1106 Azerbaijan
Department of Biological Sciences, Khazar University, Baku, AZ1096, Azerbaijan
Received May 21, 2015; in final form, October 9, 2015
—To examine the genetic diversity of
L., growing in the region near the Caspian Sea of
Azerbaijan Republic, nuclear genomes of 31 cultivated and 34 wild grapevine accessions were studied at pop
ulation and individual levels using five ISSR primers. In total, 51 fragments were amplified, of which 45 were
found to be polymorphic. A high level of polymorphism was revealed (the mean PPF and PIC values consti
tuted 87.69% and 0.94, respectively). High values of the EMR, MI, and RP indices showed the effectiveness
of the application of ISSR primers and the possibility of their use in further investigations in this direction.
Cluster analysis based on Nei’s genetic distance values showed that all genotypes could be grouped into seven
main clusters. Furthermore, no differences between the wild and cultivated grape wine accessions were
revealed. For instance, there was no distinct distribution of the accessions according to their geographical
localization. On the basis of the PIC values, the group of cultivars from Absheron Peninsula was distinguished
by the highest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.36). Natural populations from the Guba and Shabran regions
were characterized by a relatively low polymorphism level (PIC = 0.31 and PIC = 0.28, respectively), and a
wild population from Nabran demonstrated the lowest polymorphism level (PIC = 0.25). The data obtained
confirmed paleontological and historical data of different periods and provided the supposition that Azer
baijan was the center of diversity of
L. In addition, our data indicate that Azerbaijan grape lan
draces originated from local wild forms.
Gmel., ISSR primers, geographical and