Polymorphism of nucleotide sequence of D-loop fragment of the mitochondrial DNA was studied in 20 moose from several local populations on the territory of Eurasia. Three main haplotype variants of D-loop were detected by molecular phylogenetic method, which formed three clusters named European, Asian, and American. Intraspecies variation in the length of HVSI of D-loop of the mitochondrial DNA of moose was revealed. In the Far Eastern and Yakutian moose, haplotypes with a 75-bp deletion were found, which were most similar with haplotypes (also with the deletion), earlier observed in North American moose . The highest diversity of the haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA is characteristic of Yakutia and the Far East (where three haplotype variants were found), which demonstrates the probable role of the region as the center of the species origin or as the region of ancient population mixture. The geographic region might be considered as a probable source of ancient moose migrations from Asia to America, basing on the data of distribution of mitochondrial haplotypes of D-loop and alleles of MhcAlal-DRB1. Divergence of nucleotide sequences of haplotypes with the 75-bp deletion (forming the American cluster on the phylogenetic tree) was the lowest (0.4%), which evidences respectively recent origin of the group of haplotypes. In Europe, only haplotypes of mitochondrial DNA referred to European variant were observed. Basing on analysis of variation of nucleotide sequences of D-loop, exon 4 of κ-Casein and exon 2 of MhcAlal-DRB1, we demonstrated that Eurasian moose studied belong to the unique species, which has probably passed through a bottle neck. The time of the origin of modern diversity of D-loop haplotypes of the species was estimated as 0.075–0.15 Myr ago.
Russian Journal of Genetics – Springer Journals
Published: Oct 13, 2004
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